ISSN(Print): 2709-6254 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-6262 | ISSN-L : 2709-6254


Alienation and Self-Alienation


  1. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan
    Assistant Professor, Department of English Language & Literature, Institute of Linguistics & Humanities, Gomal University, D. I. Khan, Pakistan


Modernity has though opened new vistas of existence, yet it has brought in its wake trails of woes and worries, pains and pangs, which have got worldwide attention with emergence of particular terminologies like alienation and self-alienation. Both these terms might have existed in the annals of history, named and unnamed, but a particular signification has made them a topic of debate. Two world wars, the rise of globalization and one’s settlement in a war torn and economically growing world has introduced human beings to external as well as internal incompatibility amidst growing challenges of life. Human beings it appears are standing on a crossroad and are confronted with Shakespearean idea of “to be or not to be.” This research therefore tries to investigate as to what is alienation and what is self-alienation. Alienation and self-alienation appear to be products of modernity as modern human being, an alien, personally or impersonally, at home or on foreign lands, in loneliness or gatherings, seems in a state of great perplexity, confusion, chaos, uncertainty, helplessness and hopelessness. The discussion shows that alienation is objective whereas self-alienation is a subjective phenomenon.

Page Numers



Alienation, Freedom, Othering, Retreatism, Self-Alienation


Article # 41
Volume # 2
Issue # 3

DOI info

DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)41
DOI Link:


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