ISSN(Print): XXXX-XXXX | ISSN(Online) : XXXX-XXXX | ISSN-L : XXXX-XXXX

Volume 1, Issue 2

China and Peace Building in Africa: A Case Study of Sudan

Authors:
  1. Assad Mehmood Khan
  2. Nazim Rahim
  3. Samina Noor
Abstract: This paper attempts to examine that how China’s investments on the continent are donating to issues by observing at the transmission of China-made weapons to Sudan under the bid of securing oil to guard its domestic interests. The developing Sino-African relations are perceived by some foreign affairs academia as a measure of the basis on which its larger strategic drives are fabricated. Chinese interests on the continent not merely focus on economic benefits however also includes governmental, security, and sociopolitical interests. This fast-developing correlation offers opportunities besides challenges to both China and Africa. China’s trade, venture, and infrastructural development support are primarily re-modeling African markets. However, the growth of China is to posturing a retreat dilemma to the international balance-of-power. Particularly, the US perceives the African continent ravenous for their investments, expertise, and peace and cordiality. Moreover, argumentative concerns are distressing these relations. Africa remained a fatality of Western colonialism in addition to “strings-attached” methodologies. “Strings-attached‟ methodology is carried around by “quasi-state” players and is frequently being condemned by majority African leadership for interfering with the local affairs within few African states besides also offering the continent reliant on foreign-aid support.
Keyswords: Africa, China, Balance of Power, Conflict Management, Darfur, Quasi-State
Pages: 01-12
Article: 1 , Volume 1 , Issue 2
DOI Number:
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article

Parents’ Perceptions about the Economic Adjustment of Secondary Level Schools and Deeni Madaris Students’ in Society

Authors:
  1. Mati Ullah
  2. Muhammad Saqib Khan
  3. Prof. Dr. Siraj Ud Din
Abstract: The researcher focused on the economic adjustment of students in society. All Public, Private Secondary Schools and Deeni Madaris in districts (Kohat, Bannu, Karak, D.I. Khan, Tank, and Lakki Marwat) was the population of the study, whereas target population (N=405957)includes all “Principals, Teachers, Parents, and Students” from which(n = 1500) respondents were taken as a sample by applying Simple random, disproportionate, stratified, and convenient sampling techniques. Data was collected through questionnaire. Data was delimited to male stakeholders only. Data was statistically analyzed through SPSS by using Frequency and One Way ANOVA. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to analyze the internal consistency of the research instrument. The results and conclusions were drawn. Recommendations were given for future researchers and further improvement in the study.
Keyswords: Deeni Madaris, Economic Adjustment, Parents, Schools, Students
Pages: 13-24
Article: 2 , Volume 1 , Issue 2
DOI Number:
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article

The Role of General Musharraf in Pakistan's Political Structure: A Critical Review

Authors:
  1. Asghar Ullah Khan
  2. Dr. Zain Ul Abiden Malik
  3. Hani Fatima
Abstract: In the mid-1950s, the position of the military in the political system of Pakistan started and continued several times in terms of nature and extent of control. Its detachment is gradual and sluggish whenever it intervenes directly, following a paradigm of power-sharing, rather than passing power to the civilian elite. This trend of civilization has been expressed in all army regimes, including during General Pervez Musharraf’s rule, however, necessary minor modifications. Musharraf demonstrated his determination to revitalize the economy in its early days, His primary aim was to build institutions and conduct free and fair elections through transparency, decentralization and democracy through new mergers. A civilian government, clearly.
Keyswords: Elections, Military, Pakistan , Political System
Pages: 25-31
Article: 3 , Volume 1 , Issue 2
DOI Number:
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article

Burden of Exile and Identity Crisis in Rizwan Akhtar’s Pakistani Story (from real to comic): A Postcolonial Critique

Authors:
  1. Dr. Taimur Kayani
  2. Aqlimia Farrha
  3. Ejaz Ahmed
Abstract: The study endeavors to analyze the reverberations of cultural hybridity in terms of sexuality and identity crisis caused by clash of civilization in Rizwan Akhtar’s Poem: Pakistani story (from real to comic). The writer on one hand is writing back to an imperial centre in order to defy its hegemony and on the other hand is found encountered with cultural fusion rising through clash of civilization. The entire postcolonial literature exhibits a kind of cultural hybridity that gives birth to a confused identity of orients. Love-hate relationships, contradictions between ‘self’ and ‘other’ native-alien clash of cultures, hybridity, realization, nostalgia, mimicking tendency, sense of alienation and ultimate disillusionment prevail throughout the poem in one way or the other. Here, the paper discusses the relevance of Bhabha’s theory of ‘Cultural Hybridity’ to understand the quintessential postcolonial ‘halfness’ which gets a fair handling by the selected writer. The natives try to adopt the invader’s culture in order to get acceptance but are always treated as others and inferiors. In exasperation, they espouse extremist ideas and assume bitter shades of indigenous identity. This article will explore the issues of identity in the light of Postcolonial critical approaches and concludes the burden of undecided citizenship in exile.
Keyswords: Ambivalence, Clash of Civilization, Cultural Hybridity, Exile, Identity Crisis Post Colonialism
Pages: 32-39
Article: 4 , Volume 1 , Issue 2
DOI Number:
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article

Derek Walcott’s Omeros as a Palimpsestuous Adaptation: A Postmodernist Reading

Authors:
  1. Maira Asif
  2. Hina Rafique
Abstract: This research study aims at doing analysis of the poem Omeros by Derek Walcott as a postmodern text. The researcher investigates the postmodern elements in the epic under study by applying Linda Hutcheon’s theory of adaptation, as a theoretical framework. Omeros presents an intricate web of plots in multiple settings with different temporal shifts. It unfolds the post-colonial wounds of the locality of St. Lucia, which are stuck in a limbo of modern transformation of their island, black racial struggle and a past of colonial slavery. Thus, within domain of theory of adaptation, the researcher divulges in extensive intertextual and palimpsestuous engagement of Omeros with the classical literary gems; Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil’s Aeneid, Dante’s Divine Comedy and many more, thus exploiting Omeros as a modern adaptation. The characters, plotline, themes and intertextuality present in the text are interwoven with the classical epics. On adaptative platform, exhibiting the legendary characters; Philoctete, Achilles, Hector, Helen (from classics) and Walcott himself, the epic narrates the psychological pandemonium of these characters struggling for their identity and home at present time. Hence, the researcher focuses on the intertextuality and palimpsestuous elements in Omeros; Omeros emerges as a collage of all these classical texts.
Keyswords: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Omeros, Palimpsestuous, Postmodernism
Pages: 40-56
Article: 5 , Volume 1 , Issue 2
DOI Number:
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article

Zia’s Politics and Diplomacy 1977-1988: External Trends / Internal Moves

Authors:
  1. Dr. Ghulam Fareed
  2. Dr. Zahid Yaseen
  3. Muhammad Abid Nazir
Abstract: Zia’s diplomacy may be studied as vixen to vixen shrewdness. Pakistan’s covert move to start counter-insurgency on its own against Soviets in Afghanistan was really the dictate of superpower to the strategic institution to formulate a strategy for long-term capitalist designing and unipolar preponderance. In Pakistan strategists and policy makers’ philosophical code of belief the ontological perception strengthens the 1971 episode of Pakistan’s disintegration was majorly the result of Soviet-patronized India’s strategy. To avenge on Soviets for Pakistan’s past demise of national interest and the US revenge for Americans’ casualties in Vietnam war of 1960s the opportunity was constructively availed as Wendt endeavors the anarchy is constructivist social designing. The rent proxies were the phenomenon to induct ergo-oriented strategies for US-Pak harmony of interest to be achieved. The manufacturing of surrogates remained the strategically offensive/defensive business on politico-religious grounds. Zia’s diplomacy smashed the communist idol with the power of ideologically radicalized militia equipped with scientific product of modern weaponry.
Keyswords: Adversary, Constructivist, Diplomacy, Plenipotentiary, Pre-Negotiation, Provocative
Pages: 57-70
Article: 6 , Volume 1 , Issue 2
DOI Number:
DOI Link:
Download Pdf: download pdf view article