ISSN(Print): 2709-6254 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-6262 | ISSN-L : 2709-6254

(2022) Volume 3, Issue 1

Madrassah Education System: Evolution and Contemporary Challenges

  1. Sumera Zafar
Abstract: Madrassah education system holds special place in the Pakistani society as it is associated with the religious education. This system of education runs parallel to the other systems of education. The origin of madrassahs can be traced back to the early times of Islam when mosques served as the learning centers for the Muslim community. The madrassahs in Pakistan received criticism after the incident of 9/11. The world community criticized madrassahs for their involvement in militant activities which, according to the dominant perception, becomes the major cause of terrorism. After 9/11 Pakistan started reform process of madrassahs and revision of their curriculum. This article is based on the qualitative research which traced back the historical evolution of the madrassah education system and finds that the curriculum needs to be revised and updated according to the modern trends.
Keyswords: Evolution, Extremism, Jihad, Madrassah Education, Sectarianism
Pages: 01-14
Article: 1 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)01
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China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: An Economic Corridor or a Corridor to Great Power Politics

  1. Asim Shahzad Gill
  2. Mubashar Khan
  3. Qasim Shahzad Gill
Abstract: The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is the sixth corridor planned on the ‘One Belt One Road’ (OBOR), formally now termed the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). This is one of the most prominent parts of this project, planned to connect three of the world’s continents. This article focuses solely on CPEC and its economic development perspectives for Pakistan and China to explore how this project contrasts with China’s openly declared commitment to restructuring regional infrastructure and connectivity. What is China’s motive behind this project to reshape the regional structure of power in South Asia? China is replacing the USA in Pakistan, as according to most analysts it will replace the American presence in the entire region of South Asia. This makes CPEC highly important not only for China but for the US, India, and Russia as well. This project is analysed through the lens of the ‘theory of power’ presented by Steven Lukes (1974) whose ‘three faces of power’ are helpful here in highlighting the ability of an actor to become powerful through exercising various faces of power. An attempt is also made to demonstrate how important it is for Pakistan to maintain neutrality through this project and to protect its sovereignty.
Keyswords: BRI, China-Pakistan Relations, Connectivity, CPEC, Infrastructure, OBOR, Sovereignty
Pages: 15-26
Article: 2 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)02
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Editorial Treatment of the Pulwama Attack in Indo-Pak Press: War and Peace Journalism Perspective

  1. Usman Ali Shah
  2. Riffat Alam
  3. Dr. Muhammad Junaid Ghauri
Abstract: This paper is an attempt to examine the editorial coverage of the Pulwama attack, a suicide bomb blast occurred in the territory of Pulwama, 20 kilometers away from Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. For this purpose, the researchers examined three months editorials of the selected English dailies (The News International from Pakistan and The Times of India from India). The researchers used theoretical approach of war and peace journalism model proposed by Galtung (1986) and operational definitions were borrowed from Lee and Maslog (2005). The researchers have applied the quantitative content analysis to analyze the selected editorials published in the selected newspapers on the Pulwama attack. The study has investigated the prevalence of war and peace journalism frames in the editorial coverage after Pulwama attack. Results of the study shows that media has remained inclined towards war oriented journalism and war frames dominated the coverage while compared to peace frames. The Times of India used war-oriented frames significantly, whereas The News International used minimal war-oriented frames. On the other hand, The News International used a significant amount of peace oriented frames in its editorial coverage. While The Times of India rarely used the peace oriented frames.
Keyswords: India, Pakistan, Peace Journalism Frame, Pulwama Attack, Suicide Attack, War Journalism Frame
Pages: 27-40
Article: 3 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)03
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Ideological Worldliness and Westoxification in Shamsie’s Home Fire

  1. Ali Usman Saleem
  2. Mudassar Ali
  3. Muhammad Khakan Ajmal
Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze Kamila Shamsie’s Home Fire by employing Edward. W. Said’s conceptions of the worldliness. The study also aims at identifying and establishing an author’s deterministic representation of Pakistani diasporic Muslims. Said believes that each text is worldly as it is conceived and created by an author situated in the world whose worldliness is determined by his cultural, ideological and political affiliations. The paper intends to explore whether Shamsie perceives Muslims; both radicalized and westernized, as a potential threat to humanity. Shamsie’s latent Westoxification determines her selection of sarcastic remarks, combination and representation of events in such a way that the Muslims are perceived, stereotyped and stigmatized as irrational, sentimental and violent. Ideological worldliness of the narrative suggests that Shamsie has created a narrative to manifest her latent orientalism that makes her represent the moderate Muslim majority through a fraction of radicalized Muslim minority. The paper establishes that Islam in general and Pakistan in particular are stigmatized in Home Fire.
Keyswords: Fundamentalism, Islamophobia, Latent Orientalism, Radicalizism, Secular Criticism, Stigmatization, Westoxification
Pages: 41-51
Article: 4 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)04
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Protections and Facilitations for Foreign Investors: Legal Perspective under Pakistani Laws

  1. Wen Xuwu
  2. Kashif Imran Zadi
  3. Usman Hameed
Abstract: Foreign investment is essential for every country’s survival and prosperity. It encourages societal welfare programs by boosting career possibilities, raising extra income, lowering poverty, promoting commerce, and expediting the country's economic progress (Waheed & Ghumman). Pakistan is indeed the world's fifth most populated nation with more than two hundred million people (Countries in the world by population, 2021). Each of its commercial industry, especially renewable energy, infrastructural facilities, agricultural production, textiles, spin, mines, petroleum, and gas, is accessible to foreign investors. International investors are able to invest directly in any field, and there are no restrictions on the amount of money they can bring in or take out. Pakistan's government wants to attract foreigners to boost investment initiatives in the country. Pakistan serves as a gateway for overseas companies aiming to develop their business in Central Asia. Keeping in view the importance of investment, specific laws are being made to promote foreign investment over time. This research aims to analyze the nature of laws and regulations available in Pakistan dealing with the protection and facilities of foreign investment. It will explore the safeguards provided under Pakistan's laws and regulations and the extent to which Pakistan provides ease of doing business to foreign investors. It will further elaborate the risks involved in the way of investors. Finally, some practical suggestions and recommendations will be made to improve the protection regime.
Keyswords: Economic development, Equal Treatment. Investment, Foreign Investors, Legal Protection
Pages: 52-63
Article: 5 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)05
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Impact of Parental Consciousness towards Juvenile Delinquency in Punjab, Pakistan

  1. Azeem Sarwar
  2. Dr. Syed Zuhaib Aziz
  3. Dr. Waqar Ahmad
Abstract: The objective of present empirical study was to see an association between parental consciousness and juvenile delinquency in Punjab Province (Pakistan). Five jails (where juvenile delinquents were prisoned) were selected from four major cities (i.e. Multan, Bahawalpur, Lahore and Rawalpindi) of the province through purposive sampling. The primary data was collected from all juvenile delinquents (e.g. 250 out of 260 where 5 respondents disagreed for interview, 5 were not available) aged 11-18 years present in the jails at the time of study through interview schedule. The study proved a majority of the juvenile delinquents had frequent interaction with the deviant peer group due to less consciousness of their parents towards them. Furthermore, the study found that they could neither get even basic needs (e.g. education, pocket money, time, love etc.) nor proper supervision or guidance from their parents. The study also concluded that this least consciousness of parents leads them towards delinquent behavior.
Keyswords: Consciousness, Delinquency, Juvenile, Peer Group
Pages: 64-75
Article: 6 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)06
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India-Israel Defense Ties: Security Threat for Pakistan

  1. Armaghan Farid
  2. Dr. Mubeen Adnan
Abstract: India’s broad-spectrum relationship with Israel having a specific focus on the military (defense) relationship forged India and Israel into mutual complementarities. These growing military ties between both states are likely to create serious security challenges for Pakistan. India and Israel have a typical dream of the power and territorial hegemon, utilizing similar strategies of savagery in their individual approaches in involved regions. India as a team with Israel is additionally attempting towards growing hard power, which has genuine dangers for the security of Pakistan in light of the fact that to counter Pakistan is one of the great objectives of the two states by expressing Pakistan as shared adversary and danger. Hence, the military relations among India and Israel consistently contact Indian-Pakistan contention and have impacts on Pakistan security interests, upsetting the essential equilibrium of South Asia. Be that as it may, this examination is productive in figuring out what is the realpolitik behind the Israel relations with India? While its examinations that India and Israel military relationship altogether change the idea of Pakistan overall influence with India, it additionally implies the potential proposals to guarantee harmony and security explicitly in Pakistan and by and large in the district that can help in drafting the key strategy choices for Pakistan? Lastly, it is determining the corollary of India and Israel relationship towards Pakistan that, how their converging interests are causing the fallout for Pakistan and why the progress of their relationship is affecting Pakistan politically and internationally? Hence, the design of this research is exploratory and descriptive and it is relying on secondary available sources and for more observational investigation, study depends on philosophical suspicions to reach at key discoveries.
Keyswords: India–Israel Defense, Military Relationship, Pakistan Fallout. Security, Threat, US Influence
Pages: 76-87
Article: 7 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)07
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Pragmatic Deportment under Non-Stationarity to Ascertain Vigorous Drivers of Inflation

  1. Seemab Rana
  2. Dr. Nasser Ali Bait Said
Abstract: Inflation is one of the root causes of major economic problems in Pakistan. The report's focal purpose is to contribute to the literature of the evaluation of inflation flux root causes in small open Pakistan’s economy structure. The whole set up relies on three statistical practices i.e., DSGE method, VAR Cointegration and VECM Model to ascertain the main determinants of inflation rate empirically. The DSGE model extracted from VAR finite-order representation which follow each of the five non-stationary exogenous state variables to explain the endogenous variable. This research work has incorporated variables such as: inflation rate, joblessness rate, currency quantity growth proportion, interest rate, labor output growing frequency and the output gap in Pakistan. The time series data from 1980 to 2018 is used. This manuscript provides well-rounded evidences for the existence of short-run & long-run co-movements between inflation rate and its regressors in a concise way. Findings suggest that revolution of financial policies is crucial to achieve price stability.
Keyswords: Cointegration, DSGE, Inflation, VECM
Pages: 88-110
Article: 8 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)08
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Education for Sustainable Development: EMO Project Connecting the SDGs’

  1. Huma Imran
  2. Abdul Hafeez
  3. Saima Iqbal
Abstract: The achievement of what achieving the SDGs mean, possible by the strong collaboration of leaders of different fields. The government recognized that the institutions are not achieving the quality education and meeting the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and education for all (EFA). The government decided to develop partnership with the private sector. Improving the management and performance of public sector schools has been identified as one of the primary issues in Sindh. The EMOs are private groups providing management to the public schools. This study is to assess the effectiveness of EMO schools to meet the three sub domains of SDG-4, teacher, school community development and school monitoring. The data was collected from EMO schools of Sindh by convenience sampling technique. In the study qualitative techniques were incorporated for data analysis. In the outcomes of the study few teachers are experienced and qualified. They are poor in professionalism. They do not know about the modern skills and methods of teaching. These schools developed school councils for community representation. These communities possess power and legal existence but them poor to exercise these powers. The monitoring of schools is organized and ensures the availability of infrastructure and its usage.
Keyswords: Community Development and School Monitoring, EMO Schools, Sustainable Development, Teachers Development
Pages: 111-125
Article: 9 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)09
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Livelihoods Diversification in Mountain Communities: Drivers of Change in Galiyat, Abbottabad, Pakistan

  1. Humna Ijaz
  2. Bahadar Nawab Khattak
  3. Adnan Ahmad Dogar
Abstract: This paper attempts to examine traditional livelihood practices and diversification strategies in mountain communities of Galiyat Pakistan. Three purposively selected villages were used as a study site. The study used both quantitative and qualitative techniques of household questionnaires, in-depth interviews, field observations, and key informant interviews for data collection. The data was analyzed and presented through descriptive statistics and diversification indices. The study indicates that agriculture was the mainstay of the economy at all three study sites. Out-migrations and limited government and private sector jobs were major off-farm activities. Diversification strategies adopted over time are highly site site-specific and include deactivation, abandonment, and intensification of agriculture. Climate change and the tourism industry are the most important factors for survival and opportunity-led diversification strategies. Both increase and decrease in out-migration were observed at the study sites inspired by such diversification. The study concludes that increased tourism activities appeared to be an important diversification strategy that could help improve people’s living standard to a great deal. There is a need for public and private sector interventions, thereby making the small business and other innovation a survival strategy of the local community.
Keyswords: Adaptation, Livelihood Diversification, Mountain Communities, Rural Livelihoods
Pages: 126-135
Article: 10 , Volume 3 , Issue 1
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-I)10
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