ISSN(Print): 2709-6254 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-6262 | ISSN-L : 2709-6254

(2022) Volume 3, Issue 2

Strategies Used by Special Educationists to Control Involuntary Body Movements of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Quantitative Inquiry

  1. Dr. Maria Sohaib Qureshi
  2. Dr. Hina Fazil
  3. Uswa Rasool
Abstract: Involuntary body movements including hand flipping, finger flecking, rocking, jumping and pining or twirling may negatively impact social and educational activities of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Kapp, et al., 2019). The study intended to identify the strategies used by the special educationists to manage involuntary body movement of ASD. Employing quantitative research, data was collected from 100 teachers of children with autism from government and private special schools in Lahore District. The researchers employed a stratified sampling method for sampling. The results showed that physical exercise, providing comfortable furniture, using clear directions, remaining calm and peaceful were among the strategies used by majority. Likewise, using therapy balls, squeeze balls, play dough, touch and feel alphabets and letter were used in public and private sector. The findings showed no significant differences in material and techniques used by male and female teachers of govt. and private school having varying teaching experience.
Keyswords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Involuntary Body Movement, Teaching Strategies
Pages: 01-09
Article: 1 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)01
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The Effectiveness of the Sighted Teachers’ Use of Deictic Expressions for Blind Students in Mainstream Classrooms Having Majority Sighted Students

  1. Umair Ijaz
  2. Sadia Malik
  3. Fatima Akbar
Abstract: The main objectives of this study are to shed light on the difficulties of visually impaired students regarding deictic markers in inclusive classrooms and to inform the teachers’ community how effectively they can teach such students. Not much research has been done on this subject, therefore, lack of information regarding special needs of visually defective students creates hurdles for them in getting education. The main idea is that as deictic markers rely mostly on visual cues then how a visually defective student can grasp these markers with equal informativeness. Semi-structured interviews of eight visually impaired students were conducted who were pursuing their education in different universities of Pakistan. More or less all the participants voiced this observation that they have to face a lot of problems in inclusive classrooms due to the use of deictic markers. This study recommends that professional training seminars should be organized to improve the skills of the teachers in tackling such classrooms where visually impaired students are also present.
Keyswords: Blind Students, Deictic Expressions, Inclusive Classrooms
Pages: 10-18
Article: 2 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)02
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Transitivity Analysis: A Study of Protagonist’s Identity Shift in Short Story ‘Bingo’ Written in the Perspective of Dhaka Fall 1971

  1. Amina Shahzadi
  2. Nusrat Sultana
  3. Dr. Abdul Ghaffar Bhatti
Abstract: Language is the medium for representing identities and ideologies of individuals in a socio-cultural context. This function of language gives the potential to narratives to represent the identity of the character by making use of specific linguistic choices. This paper aims at examining the protagonist's identity shift in Tariq Rehman's short story 'Bingo' written in the socio-political milieu of Dhaka Fall. Halliday's transitivity model (1986) embedded in Systemic Functional Grammar is used as a framework to highlight the actions, thought processes, and relations of the protagonist in changing the socio-political context of 1971 which in turn helps to construe the identity of the individual. The analysis reveals a shift in the protagonist's identity as the incident of the 1971 war and his personal experiences of the war caused a significant change in his character from passive recipient to be the actor of material processes and his increased involvement in mental processes.
Keyswords: Identity, Narratives, Systemic Functional Grammar, Transitivity Analysis
Pages: 19-28
Article: 3 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)03
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Despondency in the Works and Lives of Emily Dickinson and Louisa May Alcott

  1. Yumna Khatoon
  2. Dr. Imran Ali
Abstract: The Antebellum period (1800 – 1860) in American history is marked by the spirit of despondency, disillusionment and dejection due to socio-political narratives of the age. Louisia May Alcott (1832 – 1888) and Emily Dickinson (1830 – 1886) are contemporary writers of the aforementioned period therefore exhibit same tendency of rebelliousness against customs of society. The rationale of writing this research is to correlate the personal experiences of despondent conditions of selected writers: unappreciated, uncanny, unhomely, and unloved to the wider arena of male dominant patriarchal society responsible for creating complexed psychological conflicts. The research is divided into two main parts: first part is woven by theoretical framework of Seperate Sphere Theory, The conflict Theory and The Humanistic Theory while second part includes Object Relation Theory, Cognitive Dissonance Theory and The Attachment Theory. The research is qualitative in approach aims to search historical, cultural, political and social approaches to judge the behavioral standards of society and challenging ways of both selected writers. The research paper helps the literary students of English Literature to explore and understand the ways these iconoclast writers tried to bring regeneration through literary contributions.
Keyswords: Despondency, Enlightenment, Gender, Oppression
Pages: 29-135
Article: 4 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)04
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Hand Block Printing: The Ancient Craft of South Asia

  1. Sadia Qutub Hashmi
  2. Sumbal Sarfraz
  3. Suffah Naeem
Abstract: This research article explores the origin and of the magnificent art of Hand Block Printing and its development through different ages to its present form has been thoroughly studied. The report focuses on the evolution, techniques, categories and economic and social implications of Hand Block Printing. The research methodology adopted for this report is qualitative focusing on the contextual and formal analysis of its designs and forms probing into their origin and evolution through centuries. For a more direct knowledge interviews have been taken by the oldest shop owners of block printing. This craft has much more value as a visual representative of cultural and traditional norms since the beginning thus a strong connecting link between past and present. It has also been conclude that this craft has a good potential to flourish if it is provided with necessary support from Government and society.
Keyswords: Block Printing, Cultural, Designs, Evolution
Pages: 38-47
Article: 5 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)05
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Quality of Life and Physical Activity among Retired Athletes in South Punjab, Pakistan

  1. Rana Muhammad Kashif
  2. Dr. Asif Ali
  3. Dr. Muhammad Azam
Abstract: The research study examined the quality of life and physical activity in the retired athletes. This research explored the most probable reasons for retirement from sports. The research was conducted on 200 retired athletes with the age group of 28 to 60 years. The data collection was administrated through WHOQOL-BREF and IPAQ requesting participants to provide their perception and causes for retirement from sports. Results showed that most of the participants retired from sports due to financial barriers, work-life balance, and physical, mental, physiological issues. The individuals who considered their retirement as voluntary had good participation in physical activity. On the other hand, who retired involuntary, had not enough participation in physical activity. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire results revealed that people who are unemployed due to work-life balance and financial constraints, and there was a substantial gap. Gaps in the quality of life across all respects. In the voluntary and involuntary retired athlete group, there was a significant difference in the physical fitness and quality of life.
Keyswords: Quality of life, Physical Activity, Retired Athletes
Pages: 48-60
Article: 6 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)06
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A Study of the Narrative and Discourse Strategies in Rabindranath Tagore Kabuliwala

  1. Rafia Khan
  2. Dr. Uzma Sadiq
  3. Dr. Rubina Masum
Abstract: The qualitative study aims at exploring the way Rabindranath Tagore projected Narrative stylistic in his short story Kabuliwala. This study provides an overview of Narrative Stylistic. Paul Simpson Narrative Stylistic is taken as a theoretical framework. The research focuses on the medium of communication between the reader and narrator in Kabuliwala. This study reveals that the events of the story are depicted from narrator's point of view or other characters. The research paper also finds out that event and action happened and arrange in order. The use of language with accent and dialect is also examined. This thesis has analysed short story Kabuliwala through narrative stylistics where researchers have taken narrator along with major characters who fulfilled all the requirement of the theory. The methodology used for this research paper is descriptive approach and analytical method. This qualitative research finds out how narrative stylistics is portrayed in the short story Kabuliwala.
Keyswords: Accent, Dialect, Kabuliwala, Narrator, Point, Rabindranath, Stylistics, View
Pages: 61-70
Article: 7 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)07
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A Stylistic Analysis of Robert Frost’s Selected Poems

  1. Aneeqa Latif
  2. Dr. Muhammad Ajmal
  3. Dr. Saira Maqbool
Abstract: This research purposes to analyze Robert Frost’s selected poems from a stylistic point of view. The analysis is done under the two levels of language; semantic and phonological level. In phonological level of language, alliteration, consonance and assonance are used to depict the importance of the words in the poems. In semantic level of language, metaphor, symbols, and imagery are used to show the poem’s meaning. The two language features in selected poems of Robert Frost are closely connected to each other convey the meaning of the poem that is battle and connection in human being’s life. Stylistic analysis is used in linguistic to discover the various language features that are in the poems and create the meaning that can be found from the language features. This analysis is very helpful and innovative in understanding the basic concept of Robert Frost ’s selected poems. It depicts the basic difference between common language used in our daily life as compared to the literary poetic language that is used in literary poetic text. This portrays the difference in style and the impact of this variation on the reader. Robert Frost’s poetry is very unique and it can easily get the attention of readers due to the versatile writing style of the poet and use of innovative features of language in poetry.
Keyswords: Language Features, Phonological Level, Semantic Level, Stylistic Analysis
Pages: 71-81
Article: 8 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)08
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Breaking News Valence on Youth: Cultivation of Sensationalism and Negativism through Cable TV Channels in Pakistan

  1. Madassar Hussain Shah
  2. Maryam Waqas
  3. Saima Kausar
Abstract: Breaking news is the phenomenon that emerged to capture the significant ratings in the news market of cable TV channels in Pakistan. However, the core idea behind breaking news is ‘If it will bleed, it will lead’ that essentially cultivates sensationalism and negativism in society particular youth is significantly influenced from the Cable TV channels’ breaking news. This study is exploring breaking news valence on youth and sees how it cultivates sensationalism and negativism through cable TV networks in Pakistan. A descriptive study is designed to see the breaking news influence on the youth (male and female) considering two variables i.e. sensationalism and negativism with convenience random sample of 320 students of Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Sargodha University, Pakistan. The findings of study revealed that respondents reflect their significant interest in the breaking news as Dunia news, ARY news, Express TV and Geo TV while politics and crimes are significant reported breaking news categories. However, male respondents view news whereas female respondents assess crimes content sensational. Moreover, significant female feel themselves insecure and take negative effects after watching breaking news as compare to male respondents. Further, negative stories and negative effect are expected to create cultivation of sensationalism and negativism among youth of Pakistan. Standard code of ethics by an independent agency is recommended on news for cable networks in Pakistan.
Keyswords: Breaking News, Cable TV, Negativism, Pakistan, Sensationalism, Valence
Pages: 82-95
Article: 9 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)09
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Analysis of Human Development, Economic Growth and Income Inequality in SAARC Country

  1. Shah Faisal
Abstract: The Human Development, Income Inequality and Economic Growth are inter-related and this paper highlights the role of Human Development in the development of SAARC’s member states. The paper uses comprehensive measures of Human Development and traces out its impact on Economic Growth using panel data model, estimated by Panel Least Square method. The Hausman Test has been used to decide between the selection of Fixed Effects and Random Effect Model. The period of analysis is from 2000 to 2016. The empirical results show that education affects HDI (Human Development Index) significantly. Moreover, when control of corruption variable is excluded from the equations, the results have been unchanged. On the other hand, Income Inequality and Human Development Index (HDI) are negatively correlated. It means that higher income inequality leads to lower HDI. The impact of HDI on Gini coefficient is positive and significant. It means that HDI increase income inequality. However, health variable do not establish statistically valid relationship with Gini coefficient. The relationship between HDI and growth is negative as the impact of one year lag HDI in GDP growth is negative and statistically significant.
Keyswords: Economic-Growth, Income-inequality, Poverty and HD
Pages: 96-104
Article: 10 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)10
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Role of Inter-Organizational Learning and Innovation in increasing the Performance of Construction Industry

  1. Tariq Rafique
  2. Dr. Najeeb A khan
  3. Dr. Sobia Mehmood
Abstract: The improvement of product novelty calls for learning in inter-organizational networks with partners. Learning new knowledge and information based on innovation enhances the performances of modern organizations. This study is conducted to find out the relationship of inter-organizational learning with innovation and organizational performance. A total number of 58 construction organizations of Islamabad and Rawalpindi were taken as population of the study. The total sample size was 403. Data was analysed though SPSS. The results are authentic and all the hypothesis were accepted. The results show that independent variable drives the mediating variable that ultimately effect the dependent variable. A significant implication for researchers and business practitioners is the familiarization of the key variables inter-organizational learning, innovation and performance.
Keyswords: Construction Industry, Innovation, Inter-Organizational Learning
Pages: 105-120
Article: 11 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)11
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The Effect of Four Skills Integrated Approach on Students’ Ability to Write an Expository Essay

  1. Kamran Ali
  2. Dr. Asadullah Larik
  3. Dr. Munawar Sultana
Abstract: The research paper investigates the impact of four skills integration approach to teach expository essay at the undergraduate level in Pakistani context. The study uses a quasi-experimental research method. Ninety students participated in this study. Four intact classes were selected to draw the sample. A language proficiency test was given to select the sections which are homogenous in terms of English Language proficiency. Two clusters were formed based on two different teaching approaches. The cluster which was taught in a traditional way was termed as control group and the cluster which received intervention, which was four skills integration, was termed as treatment group. The data run on SPSS and the result shows that treatment group scores appeared greater than the control in the post-test. This study highlights the importance of integration of reading, writing, speaking, and listening to develop students’ language proficiency in general and ability to write expository essays specifically. The research also points out to other alternative research methods to draw insight into the process of learning to write essays.
Keyswords: Four Skills Integration, Quasi Experiment, Writing Skills
Pages: 121-129
Article: 12 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)12
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The Effects of Neuro-linguistic Programming on a Psychotherapist's Communication Patterns: A Case Study

  1. Jahanzeb Jahan
  2. Minahil Tariq
  3. Dr. Mubashar Nadeem
Abstract: Neurolinguistic programming is a broad term that encompasses many aspects of therapy, counselling, and effective communication patterns. The study's goal is to promote a positive image of neurolinguistic programming. The research attempted to define it using a study that was primarily conducted to investigate the positive attributes of NLP. Neurolinguistic programming is linked to three fields: neurology, linguistics, and programming itself. Bandler & Grinder (1975) devised an idea that provided enormous assistance to therapists and counsellors at the same time. This study aims to identify the use of bilingualism, paralinguistic gestures, eye contact, and appropriate word choice in therapy. During research, it was discovered that most of the human communication occurs through nonverbal cues. A psychotherapist's understanding of effective communication patterns is critical. The study reveals that neuro-linguistic programming had a positive impact on a psychotherapist's communication patterns, which ultimately supports the entire phenomenon.
Keyswords: Bilingualism, Communication Pattern, Neurolinguistic Programming, Nonverbal Cues, Psychotherapist
Pages: 130-140
Article: 13 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)13
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Crisis Management in Schools of the Punjab: An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Strategic Planning

  1. Dr. Mehwish Jabeen
  2. Dr. Almas Ikram Kayani
  3. Dr. M. Imran Yousuf
Abstract: This research study was to identify the educational crisis management factors who affect the strategic planning faced by educational stakeholders of government primary school in the province of the Punjab, Pakistan. This research fits into the phenomenological interpretive way of thinking. Nature of the study was quantitative. Five-point Likert scale was used to collect the data from three hundred government primary school teachers from the three regions of the Punjab, Pakistan. Stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample. The procedure was trailed by sustaining information into SPSS-25. The information was sorted out and displayed in graphical structure. This study concluded that the key factors playing an important role in proposing a tentative school crisis management strategy for training of key stakeholders of educational organizations of the Punjab particularly and generally at national level of Pakistan. This study recommends, there should be a Proper law regarding implementation of SCMS/SCMP in all Educational institutions. The rationale of this study is based on the claim that it is one of the pioneer efforts in developing School Crisis Management Strategy at primary level.
Keyswords: Crisis Management, Exploratory Study, Strategic Planning
Pages: 141-149
Article: 14 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)14
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Impact of Glass Ceiling (GC) on Organizational Performance (OP): Moderating Role of Employee Satisfaction(ES)

  1. Dr. Muhammad Zia-ur Rehman
  2. Ayesha Jafer
  3. Muhammad Arif Nawaz
Abstract: The study focuses on low employee satisfaction, as it is one of the major ingredients for better performance. In business originations, performance of overall organizations depends on the satisfaction level of employees, however various techniques have been applied to enhance the satisfaction, but couldn’t succeed. Workforce includes female population as well, and one of the issues they face is Glass Ceiling and that leads to low satisfaction and hence towards below average organizational performance. A sample of 225 was selected, and through a valid and reliable instrument, data were collected. The data were screened and then analysis carried out through applying various tests. The results show significant impact of the contributing variables including glass ceiling on the dependent variable.
Keyswords: Discrimination, Employee Performance, Glass Ceiling, Workforce
Pages: 150--164
Article: 15 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)15
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Agricultural Land Ownership Disputes and its Effects on Social Structure in Pakhtun Society

  1. Muhammad Nisar
  2. Raham Zaid
  3. Fazal Hanan
Abstract: The present study was conducted in District Malakand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in order to assess the effects of land ownership disputes on social structure. Multiple Logistic Regression Model was used to determine the relationship between social structure as the dependent variable and the role of formal institutions, informal institutions, social relationships, and land commercialization as independent variables. Using the Mwakaje (2013) technique, a sample size of 128 respondents was selected from 291 respondents from the civil suit/1 record of Tehsil Dargai. The respondents were chosen using convenience sampling as a method. The model was overall significant as the P-value of Chi-square was statistically significant (P=0. 000) at the 5 percent significance level. A significant relationship was found between land commercialization and its effects on social structure (P=0.04), which is less than 0.05. However, the other variables had no significant relationship with the dependent variable. It is concluded that land commercialization had more effects on social structure as compared to the other variables in causing disputes of ownership over the land. The study recommended that the computerization of land records and creating awareness in people through sound strategies regarding usurping others’ rights in the light of prevalent laws, while taking support from Islamic Sharia are the best solutions to the problem.
Keyswords: Disputes, Land, Ownership, Social InstitutionsSocial Structure
Pages: 165-170
Article: 16 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)16
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Doing the Dirty Work: The Experiences of Female Domestic Workers in Pakistan

  1. Nadia Shafeeq
  2. Dr. Farah Naz
  3. Riffat un-Nisa Awan
Abstract: Domestic work is one of the oldest occupations of the informal economy and the number of women in domestic employment is persistently rising. However, the nature of this work, and the problems associated with it, has undergone an immense transformation over the years due to changes in family structures and dynamics. This research is an attempt to examine the issues and challenges faced by domestic workers. A qualitative study of female domestic workers was conducted to achieve this goal. The study addresses several intersected themes such as socio-economic conditions, workplace environment etc. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted and the respondents were selected purposively through snowball sampling. Our findings suggest that paid domestic work is a neglected and highly exploited form of female employment in the informal sector. The findings suggest the need for a sound legal framework on the part of employers as well as for the employees in this sector.
Keyswords: Informal Employment, Informal Workers’ Rights, Women Domestic Workers
Pages: 171-182
Article: 17 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)17
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Moral Development versus Academic Achievement in the Children of Graduate and Under-Graduate Mothers: A Comparative Study

  1. Dr. Muhammad Arshad Javed
  2. Dr. Muhammad Anees ul Husnain Shah
  3. Khalid Hussain
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to compare the level of moral development and academic achievement of the children of graduate and undergraduate mothers. There were 1351 7th grade students studying in thirty eight (38) Boys’ elementary schools situated in Tehsil Dera Ghazi khan. 306 students were selected as a sample of this study through Stratified random sampling technique. A moral development scale was used in order to check the level of moral development in the children of graduate and undergraduate mothers. Similarly, the academic achievement of the children was computed on the basis of their previous results. The results showed that the level of moral- development of the children of graduate mothers was poor but with better academic achievement. On the other way the undergraduate mothers’ children were showing better moral development level but with low academic achievement. The study recommended both types of mothers to keep balance while advocating their children about these personas.
Keyswords: Academic Achievement, Graduate And Undergraduate Moral Development, Parents
Pages: 182-191
Article: 18 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)18
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Fusion of Behaviorism and CLT to Chisel Effective Speaking in Autistic Children

  1. Javeria Amjad
  2. Dr. Anser Mahmood
  3. Muhammad Ammar Shahid
Abstract: The sole objective of this peculiar research paper is to insinuate a way to improve the speaking capabilities of the Autistic children. Autism targets the speaking competency of the children and is marked with anxiety and repetitive behavior. This work is prolific for the teachers of Autistics, as it incorporates Behavioral operant and reinforcement with CLT techniques to chisel speaking skills in effective manner. Autism has been associated with Verbal Behavior by Skinner and reinforcement has been used before to initiate speaking in Autistic children. Hereby, this research is fusing Behaviorism with CLT technique to devise ways of improving the speaking competence of Autistics. The research is quantitative and questionnaires are used as the major tool of data collection to increase the authenticity of research. The results of this particular research further support the hypothesis of the researcher that integration of these two approaches significantly change the speaking habits of the Autistic children. This work is significant as it not only provides the ways to reduce anxiety and speaking inactivity of Autistic children, but it also paves way for them to be more socially interactive.
Keyswords: Autism, Behaviorism, CLT and Communicative Competence, Verbal Operant
Pages: 194-203
Article: 19 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)19
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Psycho-dramatic Analysis of Mahesh Dattani’s Thirty Days in September

  1. Dr. Taimur Kayani
  2. Dr. Muhammad Sohail Ahmad
  3. Haseeb un Nissa
Abstract: The aim of the present analysis of Thirty Days in September is to justify the ways of getting over the sexual trauma in terms of the role of others the treatment of the victim and the various dilemmas into which the characters find themselves. The mental state of the victim and his or her emotions in the moment of crisis are very important to understand the traumatic effect on the victim’s personality. This study has signified the role of others in the understanding of victims’ mental trouble. By analyzing the play from the angle that has been mentioned earlier, the ways of treatment by using psycho-dramatic therapy have been investigated. The paper first discusses sexual abuse, its causes, and its side effects. Moreover, it explores the treatments of getting over sexual trauma with the role of others. Thirdly, it deals with three stages of psycho-dramatic therapy. This research has explored the complete journey of the victim that shows how she has suffered and comes out of the sexual trauma
Keyswords: Dilemmas, Psycho-dramatic, Therapy, Trauma
Pages: 204-212
Article: 20 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)20
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Quantifying the Mediating Effect of Resilience in Supply Chain: Empirical Evidence from Oil and Lubricant Industry

  1. Mudassir Ali Khan
  2. Sayed Fayaz Ahmad
  3. Muhammad Irshad
Abstract: The study is undertaken to evaluate the facets of Supply Chain Resilience, Capabilities, and Performance within the Oil and Lubricant Industry of Pakistan. In this explanatory research, a model is developed to validate the premise of drafting value-creating supply chain resilience to assist and implement supply chain management strategies in trading companies. The study exploits the primary data source from at least 306 professionals working in Oil and Lubricant Industries in Pakistan. The structural Equation Technique is used to analyze data from the respondents. The research finding depicts that the antecedent of Supply Chain Resilience mediates positively between Supply Chain Capabilities and Supply Chain Performance of the company. Robust Supply Chains have a more positive impact on performance versus Agile Supply Chains. To increase Supply Chain Resilience, companies should make their supply chain more Robust by improving their Supply Chain Capabilities, Risk Strategies as well as Supply Chain Management Strategies.
Keyswords: Oil and Lubricant Industry, Supplier Chain Resilience, Capability, Supply Chain Performance
Pages: 213-224
Article: 21 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)21
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A Conceptual Underpinning of Lobbying and Propaganda as Policy Influencing Tools for Peace and Conflict

  1. Maria Fakhar
Abstract: The research explores the conceptual grounding of lobbying and propaganda, both distinctively and complimentarily. Propaganda and lobbying are not novel terms for ‘International Relations and Political Sciences’ students, researchers and experts. These terms have often been used to validate the influence one actor has on other states by disseminating information: both true and false. The intended end product of these influences is to affect polices and decision-making processes in one’s own favor or against the conflicting actor. Over the years, during both World Wars and the Cold War, propaganda has remained a major policy tool employed in winning wars or demoralizing the opponents. To that extent, it is also termed ‘soft power’. Despite the use of several tools and techniques in the art of spreading propaganda, mass media has contemporaneously been employed as a vital technique to reach the masses and influence decision makers. Since propaganda campaigns are initiated and organized by authorities or governments to influence the political, social or economic settings of opponents. For that matter, propaganda is also considered as a field or strategy to do successful lobbying.
Keyswords: Campaigns, Information, Lobbying, Policy, Propaganda
Pages: 225-237
Article: 22 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)22
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Racial Supremacy and the Image of Blacks in the American Print Media: A Critical Discourse Analysis

  1. Qurat Ul Aine
  2. Dr. Humaira Sarvat
  3. Dr. Syeda Samina Tahira
Abstract: Death of Floyd unveils the racial equalities between whites and blacks in the United States. The image of Black Americans as second-class citizens of society has been changed after the murder of George Floyd. The purpose of this qualitative research is to reveal the use of language in the exercise of racial supremacy in the aftermath of the murder of George Floyd by a white police officer on May 25, 2020. The data consists of 05 news reports from the Washington post, published in 2020. Using Fairclough’s 3-D model of discourse analysis (1992), the research analysis concentrates on the features and lead passages (the introductory passages of the news reports published in American Print Media during year of 2020) of a corpus of 10 news reports (05 before the event and 05 after the event) and inspects the image of Black (Black People living the United States, where the event took place) after the killing of George Floyd. This study finds that the media is not biased and can change pre-formulated belief systems.
Keyswords: Blacks, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), News Reports, The American Press
Pages: 238-246
Article: 23 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)23
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Item Discrimination of Intelligence Test Items: A Quality Assurance Test for an Assessment Tool

  1. Nighat Gul
  2. Dr. Sonia Shagufta
  3. Dr. Shagufta Parveen
Abstract: Item discrimination is an essential technique for making the item analysis for selecting the appropriate items for intelligence test. It helps to identify items which can be revised or discarded, thus building a quality items for IQ assessment tool. The study focussed on item analysis of 100 items of four intelligence types. These items of intelligence test conduct on 1500 people of different age groups adolescence to adulthood. Through item discrimination explored the items discriminatory power with the help of MS excel 2010 and SPSS. Through item analysis we rejected 23 items which item discriminatory power was zero, negative and less than 0.5. item discrimination range in present study was 0.5 -0.45. reliabilities of all types of the intelligence likewise linguistic, observational, mathematical and logical were .88, .80, .89 and .90 respectively. These reliabilities were higher and indicating the present tool of intelligence authentic and reliable. This is a quality assurance test for measuring the individuals intellectual capabilities.
Keyswords: Assessment Tool, Discriminatory Power, Intelligence Test, Item Discrimination, Observational
Pages: 247-253
Article: 24 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)24
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The Impact of Static Stretching on Energy Cost and Running Endurance Performance of Female Athletes of University of Narowal, Panjab, Pakistan

  1. Mehwish Manzoor
  2. Muntaha Muneer
  3. Sobia Perveen
Abstract: The purpose of the research study, Stretching before anaerobic events has brought about decreases in performance; be that as it may, the quick impacts of stretching on endurance performance have not been explored. This study researched, the impacts of static stretching on energy cost and endurance performance in prepared female sprinters. Ten prepared female distance sprinters matured years 25±7 with a normal VO2max of 63.8 ± 2.8 ml/kg/min were selected. Participants answered to the lab on 3 separate days. On day 1, anthropometrics and VO2max were estimated. On days 2 and 3, participants played out an hour-long treadmill run randomly under stretching or non-stretching conditions isolated by no less than multi week. Stretching comprised of 16 minutes of static stretching involving 5 activities for the significant lower body muscle gatherings, though non-stretching comprised of 16 minutes of quiet sitting. The run comprised of a 30-minute 65% VO2max preload followed by a 30-minute performance run where participants ran beyond what many would consider possible without review distance or speed. Total calories used were determined for the 30-minute preload run, while performance was estimated as distance canvassed in the performance run. Performance was essentially more prominent in the non-stretching (6.0 6 1.1 km) versus the stretching (5.8 ± 1.0 km) condition (p, 0.05), with altogether more noteworthy energy consumption during the stretching contrasted and the non-stretching condition (425 ± 50 versus 405 ± 50 kcals). Our discoveries recommend that stretching before a n endurance occasion might bring down endurance performance and increase the energy cost of running.
Keyswords: Flexibility, Muscle Stiffness, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Sit-And Reach
Pages: 254-261
Article: 25 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)25
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Leadership Behavior of Secondary School Heads in relation with School Performance

  1. Muhammad Nadeem Anwar
  2. Ghulam Zainab
  3. Tariq Saleem Ghayyur
Abstract: School performance is largely dependent on the behavior of the leadership of heads and effective behavior yield better school results. The present endeavor was to examine the relationship of leadership behavior and academic achievements of secondary school students in terms of headmasters’ role in the promotion of academic performance. A descriptive-correlational survey design was used to test the null hypothesis. The behavior of school heads was assessed as per the views of teachers. A self-developed research tool i-e questionnaire was distributed to 225 secondary school teachers conveniently taken from 40 secondary schools. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software. The results indicated that a positive relationship of learning behavior, facilitating behavior, and creating behavior with academic performance of schools was found except in influencing leadership behavior, a strong negative relationship has appeared. It implies that learning behavior, facilitating behavior, and creating the behavior of heads have a significant positive impact on the performance of schools.
Keyswords: Leadership Behavior, Performance, School Heads
Pages: 262-272
Article: 26 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)26
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Laws, Issues, Challenges, Analysis of Livestock Sector and International Best Practices

  1. Dr. Zia Ullah Khan
Abstract: Approximately 35(M) people in rural areas are attached with Livestock Sector. The average distribution of livestock holdings per family is 2-3 cattle/buffalo, 3-4 sheep /goats and 10-12 poultry, and its share in the income of those families is approximately 40% (Ministry of Finance, 2020). Development strategy for livestock sector in Pakistan requires technological production, scientific processing and establishment of proper collection/ distribution networks with improving cattle market facilities. Livestock development on scientific basis i.e. adoption of modern techniques of breeding, selection of proper breeds of animal and availability of modern veterinary services at town level will also open enormous avenues for increase in exports of livestock and its by-products. The market of Middle Eastern dominated by countries like India, European Union and Canada could be captured by Pakistan by adoption of proper planning and appropriate policies in accordance with international standards and best practices. In Pakistan livestock sector is struggling with certain issues and challenges which needed to be surfaced out so that these issues could be addressed by the different stakeholders in collaboration of each other.
Keyswords: Animal Quarantine Department and Dairy Development Department. Livestock, Management, Potential, Veterinary
Pages: 271-283
Article: 27 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)27
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Comparison of Class Representatives' Leadership Skills of Students in Higher Education

  1. Mobeen Ul Islam
  2. Miss Laraib
  3. Khalid Saleem
Abstract: Leadership skills strengthen the leadership qualities of a leader. Higher education institutions play an important role in developing leadership skills in students. This study is quantitative. Two-stage random sampling techniques were used to select the study sample from the University of Gujrat. For data collection, an adapted questionnaire was used consisting of a five-point Likert type scale with 28 statements. One Way between groups analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to calculate the difference in leadership skills of class representatives among students of the different semesters. The study's findings show a significant difference in class representatives' leadership skills among students of the different semesters. But when the researcher ran the post hoc Tuckey test to find out the difference between students of different semesters, the researcher observed a statistically significant difference between 2nd and 6th-semester students and in 2nd and 8th-semester students, no statistically significant difference.
Keyswords: Class Representatives, Higher Education, Leadership Skills, Students Semester
Pages: 283-293
Article: 28 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)28
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Effects of Using Online Instructional Method of Teaching English to Undergraduate Students during COVID-19 Period

  1. Dr. Mehmood Ul Hassan
  2. Dr. Muhammad Pervaiz
  3. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar
Abstract: During Pandemic period, online learning wave observed among undergraduate EFL students. Both students and teachers experienced its usefulness in learning and teaching English. The current study is aimed to explore the role of Google-meet class available on computers to improve under undergraduate EFL students of English. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in this study. Data were collected through questionnaire that had close-ended and open-ended questions. Questionnaires were distributed among 300 undergraduate level EFL students studying at University of South Asia of Punjab, Pakistan. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version 28) to find out results in the form of Percentage, Mean Score, SD (standard deviation) by conducting the Independent Sample t-test. The results of the study revealed the potential of computer and mobile assisted language instructions as an anticipatory approaches to improve English language. Results indicated that EFL students were more intended to use computers to develop interest for language proficiency. They responded positively about the role of mobile as well as computers to improve English language skills. On the basis of findings, it was concluded that mobile can play result oriented role in improving EFL students’ language proficiency. For future research the study recommended that experimental research might be carried out to analyze the effectiveness of using computers for learning English as foreign language.
Keyswords: Computer, Education, Google-Meet, Online Learning, Technology
Pages: 294-304
Article: 29 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)29
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Problems and Consequences of Whistle Blowing: single instrumental case study of a whistle blower in public sector institution in Punjab, Pakistan

  1. Dr. Beenish Ijaz Butt
  2. Dr. Nargis Abbas Mirza
  3. Dr. Uzma Ashiq
Abstract: The actions of whistleblowers are potentially beneficial in a developed society but it may not be the case in a developing and underdeveloped society. In a developing society like Pakistan, the scenario of whistle blowing is very much different from the other countries. In an atmosphere of massive corruption, citizens have low confidence in public sector organizations when they are in a need to report wrong doings to the authorities. But one, who takes an initiation for it, has to face certain problems and consequences. This paper aims at investigating the problems and consequences of a whistle blower in a public sector organization at micro level. To explain the said issue, this study was conducted by using qualitative case study method and involved the study of a case in real life. The single instrumental case study was conducted with a woman (daily-wage employee) in a public sector university. The overall procedure for conducting a case study was opted from Creswell’s model (Creswell, 2013). Major derived themes from data were catch 22, hydra-headed administrative system, whistle blower protection and individual problems. It is concluded that in the absence of a proper mechanism for whistle blowing, one has to face the consequences so the researchers suggests that every institution might address the said issues by legislating and implementing whistle blowing to secure the whistle blower rights.
Keyswords: Case Study Method, Hydra-Headed Administrative System, Qualitative Research, Whistle Blower Protection, Whistle Blowing
Pages: 305-312
Article: 30 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)30
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Introduction to the Shariah System of the Former State of Chitral

  1. Saeed Ur Rahman
  2. Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad
Abstract: Human life is of great value in Islam. That is why God has prescribed punishments. In which there is apparently death but in reality there is life in these punishments and sharia system. When we see this sharia system in Chitral, it has been in use for seven centuries. It is a fact that people in mountainous areas are naturally temperamental. But when we look at the people of Chitral, we find opposite to it. That these people, despite living in the rocky valleys of Terich Meir, K2 and Mount Hindu Kush, seem to have a very gentle temperament, a quiet temperament, far from fighting. Therefore, awareness of this fact is very important. What is the secret of this unique quality of the people Chitral, particularly in the country and generally in Asia.
Keyswords: Bahman, Kohistany, Chitral River, Raess Awal
Pages: 313-319
Article: 31 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)31
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Governing Strategies in Re-Imaging Punjab Police: An Assessment

  1. Zulfiqar Ali
  2. Dr. Rehana Saeed Hashmi
Abstract: Good governance is the framework of activities and behaviour of the state institutions with the pursuance of the career of the individuals to achieve the objective of the public good at large. Transparency, accountability and rule of law are the foremost checks in an efficient governance system (Pacific, 2012). Like other public sector departments of the Punjab, governance issues of policing are not unique to the Punjab Police. Mainly, the problems of governance in Punjab Police are due to the inherited legacy of colonial rule and mindset. The paper argues that inadequate and extremely varied ways the Punjab Police exercise its authority in the prevention and detection of crime is the source of dissatisfaction for the general public. The given preferences and adopting the policies to deal the community without considering the ingrediencies of good governance mismatch the Police at par with the community needs. The orthodox police governance is critical in maintaining public trust, upholding human rights, ensuring accountability, transparency, rule of law, and legitimacy (Suddle, Police-Executive Relationship in Pakistan, 2007). Qualitative policing depends on considerable changes in the criminal justice system for re-imaging police perception and impression to achieve the ultimate goal of good governance with transparency, equality and rule of law for the satisfaction of the community.
Keyswords: Colonial Legacy, Criminal Justice System, Good Governance, Mindset of Police, Public Perception, Public Service. Rule of Law
Pages: 320-329
Article: 32 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)32
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Perception of Students without Disabilities about Socialization with Hearing Impaired Peers

  1. Ghazala Ishrat
  2. Kashmala Nawaz
  3. Sonia Fareed Khan
Abstract: This research aimed to explore students' perception of hearing loss about socialization with hearing impaired peers. Socialization is an important contributor for hearing impaired students interacting with hearing peers. Sometimes Hearing impairment cause barriers in communication with hearing peers. That is why it is important to find out about the perception of socialization of hearing students in higher education. The descriptive methodology was used to infer the conclusion in this quantitative research. The researcher developed a self-made questionnaire to explore the perception of hearing students. The population of this research was all the hearing students who had social interaction with hearing-impaired students in an inclusive education setup. Convenient sampling was used to select a sample from hearing students of BS and MA Special education and other programs to collect the data and then analyze by using descriptive and inferential analysis using SPSS. Response of majority students was positive towards the socialization of hearing students with hearing-impaired students at higher education. This research highlighted a new direction for improving socialization among hearing peers and students with hearing impairment. Such an initiative will encourage them to include them in developing countries like Pakistan.
Keyswords: Hearing Impairment, Hearing Peers, Inclusion, Socialization
Pages: 330-349
Article: 33 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)33
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Religious Preventive Measures and Myths About Covid-19 among Muslims

  1. Dr. Shahzad Farid
  2. Dr. Anwar ullah
  3. Dr. Imtiaz Ahmad
Abstract: The study aimed to explore the religious practices to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic and prevalent myths about the pandemic. The study was conducted in Pakistan between January 01 to July 01, 2021. The sample size of the study was 503 respondents from Pakistan, who were approached using online survey method. They data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. The study explored three factors of preventive measures i.e. religious, social and hyper prevention, and two factors of myths i.e. myths and denial, using exploratory factor analysis. The study also explored that the religious prevention from COIVD-19 is higher among females than males. The study concluded that although preventive measures are practiced in Pakistan yet the myths about COVID-19 pandemic are prevalent that may cause the higher prevalence of COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, it is suggested to launch a more effective campaign about COVID-19 pandemic engaging religious clerics and medical professionals.
Keyswords: COVID-19, Gender, Muslims, Prevention, Religion
Pages: 350-357
Article: 34 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)34
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International Feminist Movements and Battered Women’s Shelters in Pakistan

  1. Dr. Maliha Gull Tarar
  2. Dr. Aaqib Shahzad Alvi
  3. Rana Imran Ahmed
Abstract: Battered women’s shelters emerged as a place for victims to escape the violence in their homes as the problem of domestic violence became recognized and discussed in the 1970s. As the result of international feminist movements, many of the early shelters were founded by feminists and proletariat activists. The battered-women’s movement has now spread across much of the globe to provide shelter and advocacy for social transformation. Pakistan also started to establish shelters for battered women in 1960s and has extended the services across the country. This study examined the shelter experiences of battered women in Pakistan and its relationship with international feminist movements’ agenda. Qualitative research design was used to conduct the research. The service providers as well as battered women shared their opinion about shelter services in Pakistan. The study concluded that Pakistani shelter homes are helping women victims of violence to flee from abusive situations, to respite for a while and to think about future but much more is needed to address the real issues of battered women. The study also explored that violence against women is a socio-cultural issue, so it is needed to address violent components prevailing in the society rather than just providing shelter services to battered women.
Keyswords: Feminist Activism, Shelter Movement, State Intervention, Violence
Pages: 358-371
Article: 35 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)35
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Indo-US Strategic Cooperation: Emerging Regional Narrative and China’s Response

  1. Humera Hakro
  2. Ali Khan Ghumro
  3. Jamshed Baloch
Abstract: The focus of this research is to analyze the relations among three major states America India and China. Increasing Indo-US relations have left spill over implications on China in geostrategic sphere. Since the end of cold war, the dramatic strategic change occurred in the trilateral relations among America India and China. During the cold war period Indian tilt was towards Soviet Union both the states remained strategic allies. The soviet defeat in Cold War created a strategic gape in American foreign policy to filling that strategic gape US deemed India as reliable partner and China as strategic competitor. For Countering China’s economic, political and strategic influence America have established strategic relations with India. The dawn of 21st century gave birth to shocking event of 9/11 that has changed the land scape of geo-political and geostrategic relations among the states; simultaneously Asian continent became singular focus of American policy makers for two reasons; one war on terror and other China’s economic power. Analytical approach has been adopted and descriptive method is used in the research to achieve research objectives.
Keyswords: America, Geostrategic Relations, India and China
Pages: 372-382
Article: 36 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)36
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An Evaluation of English Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching and Their Impact on Students' Academic Achievement at the Higher Secondary Level in District Kohat

  1. Farrukh Kamran
  2. Intikhab Alam
  3. Ayesha Afzal
Abstract: The study's major purpose was to assess English instructors' attitudes toward teaching and their influence on students' achievement at the upper secondary level. The research was descriptive in nature. All upper secondary schools in the district Kohat were included in the study's population. As a sample, male and female English teachers from all upper secondary schools were chosen. Questionnaire and results (session 2018-2019) of students were used as research instruments, keeping objectives of the study in mind for data collection. The data was analyzed by using factor analysis, individual correlation analysis and multi group correlation analysis. The study's findings revealed that English teachers had a positive attitude regarding other aspects of their profession. The findings also demonstrated that when gender was taken into account, there were some significant disparities in attitude scores among English teachers. Particularly, females had higher attitude scores than males towards general attitude and factors like academics, administration, co-curricular, and social-psychological.
Keyswords: Assessment, Attitude, Gender, Teaching Profession
Pages: 383-394
Article: 37 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)37
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Analysis of Examination Papers in Discipline of Islamic Studies Conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Karachi

  1. Dr. Atif Aftab
  2. Dr. Muhammad Bilal Usmani
  3. Dr. Syed Muhammad Arsalan Shoeby
Abstract: Islamic Studies as a vital discipline at secondary and higher secondary level generally focus on the fundamental beliefs of Islam, teachings of Quran, Sunnah, and Hadith. The examining body at Intermediate and Secondary level is Board of Secondary and Intermediate Education, Karachi. There is an immediate need to analyze the examination papers of Islamic Studies conducted by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Karachi. It is a continuous process. The specific objectives of the study were to analyze the examination papers of Islamic Studies in light of the educational objectives of the Bloom's Taxonomy.A check list was developed. It was found that in multiple choice questions (objective items) generally knowledge domain was assessed in the examination papers of Islamic Studies. In subjective component (short answer questions and long questions) comprehension and application domains are assessed. The higher abilities, like, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation are generally ignored. It is therefore recommend that attention will be made to focus on all cognitive domains along with the prescribed guidelines given by curriculum authorities.
Keyswords: Analysis, Examination Papers, Intermediate and Secondary level Islamic Studies
Pages: 395-405
Article: 38 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)38
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Effect of Feedback Specificity On Students’ Academic Self-Efficacy at Intermediate Level

  1. Nishat Zafar
  2. Dr. Syed Shafqat Ali Shah
Abstract: The objectives of the study were to find out the effect of feedback specificity on students’ academic self-efficacy and to find out the interaction effects of ability and feedback specificity on students’ academic self-efficacy. The study was experimental and 2x2 factorial design was used. The target population of the study was comprised of all the female students registered in the program F.A Part-II with the elective subject of education at university of Gujrat. Sample of the study was comprised of 48 students. All the students included in the sample were divided into two groups (i.e. High achievers and Low achievers). Secondly, all the students of F.A Part-II (Section B) were selected randomly to constitute two groups (experimental and control group). In this way, both experimental and control groups consisted of twenty four (24) students. For data collection instrument named “The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ)” was adapted by the researcher. The study's main results concluded that different strategies of feedback specificity remained significant and enhanced students’ academic self-efficacy. It is recommended that institutions for intermediate level should include elaborative feedback strategies as part of the teaching learning process.
Keyswords: Academic Selfefficacy, Feedback Specificity, Learning Effort
Pages: 406-416
Article: 39 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)39
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Critical Analysis and Breeches in the Legislation addressing Domestic Abuse against Women

  1. Shehla Zahoor
  2. Iftikhar Ahmad
  3. Umer Farooq
Abstract: The most important objective of this research is to make critical analysis of the laws addressing to this problem. A fraction of the horrific fines enforced by the brutal Hudood treachery commands were abolished by the 2006 Act for the Protection of Women. The purpose of the study is to highlight violence in Pakistan on women, which is generating human distress and preventing women from working. The research method for the suggested issue covers descriptive nature. For the compilation of data, all primary and secondary outlets are used which include observation, books, research papers, posts and official records. Since there are laws and ordinances present, we need to put them in action .Furthermore, even in the laws present, there are loopholes that we need to highlight so that they are implemented. Taking everything into respect, the practice of present acts is important for a safe future of women in Pakistan.
Keyswords: Amendments, Harassments, Honor Killing, Qatl-E-Amad, Qisas, Victims
Pages: 417-425
Article: 40 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)40
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Undergraduate Students’ Uses of Code Switching (CS) in Pakistani Universities: A Reflective Study

  1. Dr. Humaira Irfan
  2. Dr. Muqaddas Butt
  3. Dr. Aisha Rizwan
Abstract: Pakistan is a multicultural, multilingual and multiethnic society, therefore, code switching (CS) is a common feature of the Pakistani society. The study has deployed the qualitative and quantitative methods to answer the research questions. The data was collected from the undergraduate students and their teachers of two public sector universities located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The findings reveal that both undergraduate students and university teachers are using CS as a tool beneficially for multiple reasons in universities such as, teaching, translation, classroom discussion, comprehension, and explanation, conversation, asking for clarification and responding to teachers’ questions. The code switching alleviates students’ language anxiety. It is recommended that CS as an effective bilingual strategy of teaching should be included in teacher education programs to train the university faculty members for implementing it successfully in their classrooms for achieving the objectives of their academic courses.
Keyswords: Code Switching, Comprehension, Conversation, Discussion, Translation
Pages: 426-434
Article: 41 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)41
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Radicalism in Pakistan: An Analytical Perspective

  1. Samra Hameed
  2. Dr. Gulshan Majeed
Abstract: The actual problem is that there is no culture of stimulating the intolerant discourse which has formed a violent Pakistani society and it has challenged the liberal values of the state. The radical’s narrative is based on the concept that Pakistan is an Islamic country, only way of being a good Muslim, and to create an ideal Islamic state which denounces the western ideas of democracy and liberalism. There are number of internal and external factors which helped to radicalize the already polarized society, resulted in extremism, sectarianism and militancy. Military and political leadership helped to patronage radicals for their own benefits. The moderate and liberal voices of the society are forced to remain silent and this silence is interpreted as the support of the radicals by the West. Radical’s strong hold and lack of unified approach to contain them caused serious problems. This paper aims to explain the radical’s narrative and find a counter narrative of moderate and liberal Pakistan.
Keyswords: Democracy, Intolerant, Islam, Pakistan, Radical
Pages: 435-446
Article: 42 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)42
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Socio-economic and Institutional Factors Effecting “Quality Education” in Government Primary Schools in the Naseerabad Division, Balochistan

  1. Shakeel Ahmed
  2. Dr. Mumtaz Ali Baloch
Abstract: This study analyzed socio-economic and institutional factors that affect the quality of education in government primary schools in the Naseerabad division, Balochistan. For this purpose, a semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview guide were used to collect data from 272 respondents from the two districts of the Naseerabad division. The information gathered through the questionnaire was analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage, mean, correlation, and logistic regression. The logistic regression analysis results indicate a positive association between quality education and a well- trained teacher, effective school administration, teaching-learning materials, physical facilities, parental and community involvement in the educational process, a learning-friendly family environment, and family income. On the other hand, teacher absenteeism, an outdated curriculum, and a flawed examination system were negatively associated with quality education. Moreover, data collected through group discussions and in-depth interviews were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Based on the findings, it is recommended that government needs to appoint competent, trained and qualified teachers to improve the quality of education.
Keyswords: Balochistan, Government Primary Schools, Naseerabad Division, Quality Education, Socio-economic and Institutional Factors
Pages: 447-458
Article: 43 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)43
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Oil Price Shocks and their Implications for Stock Market in the United States

  1. Dr. Hina Ali
  2. Shazia Tabassum
  3. Zinaz Aisha
Abstract: The current study calculated the asymmetric effect of Oil Price on the Stocks Market of the USA from 1996 to 2009 by applying the asymmetric Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) co-integration technique. The generated results proved the long-term asymmetries between Oil price and Stock Market Index. Oil Price shocks affect the stock market of the USA significantly and positively. Both negative and positive Oil Price shocks have a positive effect on the stock market index of the USA. By applying the Phillips and Peron (PP) Unit root Test it is concluded that data is stationer at mixture which allowed to apply the ARDL technique. After applying the Bound test study move towards NARDL to verify the long-term relationship between Oil Price and Stock Market Index. The dependent variable is Stock Market Index, the Main independent variable is Oil Price and other related independent variables are the Exchange rate and Foreign Direct Investment. In this way, positive and negative prices of oil shock waves are advantageous for the oil exporters like the USA. The effect of FDINI is also favorable since once foreign investors finance in the host country then job opportunities, employment, income and purchasing power increase and then economic development and export also increase
Keyswords: Asymmetric Non-Linear Auto Regressive Distributed Lag, Foreign Direct Investment, Oil Price, Real Effective Exchange Rate, Stock Market Index
Pages: 459-473
Article: 44 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)44
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Knowledge Attitudes, and Practices of Parents on Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Children Under Five Years: A Cross Section Study

  1. Kashif Khan
  2. Gul Nazar
  3. Shafaat Ullah
Abstract: To assess the parent’s knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding childhood acute respiratory Acute respiratory infection is an infection that may interfere with normal breathing. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity, particularly when associated with delays in treatment Control of acute respiratory infections (ARI) is a major public health problem in developing countries. A descriptive cross-sectional survey study design was used in which 150 parents were selected for the study through simple random sampling technique and the sample size was calculated by Rao soft with confidence interval and margin of error. In this study total 150 participants were included in which there were 36 males and 64 females. There were more than half of the participants had poor knowledge related to ARIs. The majority participants had negative attitude toward consulting a physician. This study result shows that half of the participants had poor knowledge and rest had good knowledge regarding childhood acute respiratory infections. Most of the participants had negative attitude towards the consulting a physician
Keyswords: Balochistan, Government Primary Schools, Naseerabad Division, Quality Education, Socio-economic and Institutional Factors
Pages: 474-484
Article: 45 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)45
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Factual Autonomy Predict Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Counterproductive Work Behaviour in Industry Workers Mediated by Burnout

  1. Ayesha Aftab
  2. Ali Raza Elahi
  3. Muhammad Mussaffa Butt
Abstract: This study aimed to explore the relationship between factual autonomy (FA), organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and Counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) in industry workers, possibly mediated by burnout. Participants included 600 industry workers (300 from local and 300 from multinational industries), age 25 through 40 years, with a minimum experience of one year of working on the same position. Organizational Citizenship Behavior Checklist (OCB-C), Factual Autonomy Scale (FAS), Counterproductive Work Behavior Checklist (CWB-C), and Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM) were used to collect data from the participants. The results indicated that, more FA is likely to result in significantly more OCB, significantly lesser CWB and significantly lesser burnout in industry workers. Similarly, an increase in burnout is likely to predict a significant decrease in OCB and significant increase in CWB of industry workers. Further, burnout significantly mediated the relationship between FA and OCB as well as FA and CWB. In a rapidly changing post-covid world, such studies are very important to inform policy makers and have important implications for industrial/organizational psychologists and consultants like defining the limit of autonomy for industry workers, keeping a check on burnout and CWB while striving for more OCB.
Keyswords: Burnout, Counterproductive Work Behaviour, Factual Autonomy, Organizational Citizenship Behaviour
Pages: 485-497
Article: 46 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)46
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The Impact of Environment Ethics and Performance on Firm Competitive Advantage: A Dynamic Capability Framework with Green HRM Practices

  1. Safyan Majid
  2. Ali Raza Elahi
  3. Nisar Ahmad
Abstract: Environmental concerns have become the central point of discussion for businesses because climate change results from negligence by the industries have put the planet at stake. To survive in this era, stakeholders have started pressuring the firms to adopt environmentally friendly practices to save the planet and build a positive image among the customers. This study has used the framework of Dynamic capabilities (DC) to examine the hypotheses extracted from the previous literature suggesting the nexus of environmental ethics and performance in building competitive advantage through the help of green HRM practices. The findings of our study reveal that environmental ethics and performance have a significant impact on competitive advantage. The study also revealed that green HRM practices of an organization moderates the relationship between environmental ethics and performance on a firm's competitive advantage. The study results suggest that the organizational approach towards environmental and ethical practices in the workplace should not be reactive but proactive to create and sustain synergy amongst the triads, namely, profits, society, and the environment. Green HRM practices should be adopted effectively to beat the competition and improve environmental performance in the organization.
Keyswords: Competitive Advantage, Environmental Ethics, Green HRM Performance
Pages: 498-516
Article: 47 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)47
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The Impact of Social Responsibility on Organizational Effectiveness: A case Study of Construction Industry in AJ&K

  1. Dr. Abdul Ghafar Khan
  2. Dr. Muhammad Ajmair
  3. Saqib Yaqoob
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual framework that investigate the impact of corporate social responsibility on the effectiveness of the organization in AJ&K construction's companies. The Primary data was gathered from various respondents. For this the study used questionnaire as mentioned suitable question against each variable. The results indicate that the respondents have already sense a theme of corporate social responsibility but in a different scenario. The findings show that ethical responsibility makes contribution to organizational effectiveness in AJ&K. This relationship amongst the result analyses that organization effectiveness will increase when organization adapts for ethical and social responsibility. Findings of this study show that ethical responsibility has a significant positive influence on organization effectiveness. Second hypothesis of this research was to check relation between economical responsibility and organizational effectiveness. The findings of this study will defiantly help to bring aware among government employees regarding CSR.
Keyswords: Diverse Workforce, Globalization, Human Resource Management, Organizational Effectiveness, Social Responsibility
Pages: 517-528
Article: 48 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)48
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Marginalization of the Indians in Bollywood Motion Picture ‘Lagaan: Once Upon a Time in India

  1. Dr. Muhammad Imran
  2. Dr. Sardar Ahmad Farooq
  3. Dr. Nazakat Awan
Abstract: This study is based on the scenic analysis of Bollywood motion picture ‘Lagaan: Once Upon a Time in India’. The study attempts to highlight the historical instances of marginality of people of India and to unearth the aspects of oppression and exploitation at the hands of the British colonizers. Employing some relevant assumptions from Edward Said’s phenomenal work ‘Orientalism’, the researchers have weaved a framework to conduct an in-depth analysis of marginality of the Indians as depicted in the film understudy. The study inkles towards the oppressive strategies of the non-natives (colonizers) to keep the natives (colonized) subjugated and weak thereby augmenting their cultural, social and psychological oppression. It also suggests that the binary of the strong/weak, rational/irrational, civilized/barbaric and decent/indecent is so hardwired that it is mighty hard to deconstruct. This research is likely to give a new angle to this text thereby enriching its scope and understanding.
Keyswords: Binary Pairs, Colonization, Marginalization, Orientalism
Pages: 529-536
Article: 49 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)49
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Sino-Iranian Comprehensive Strategic Relations: Implications for the Region

  1. Areeja Syed
  2. Dr. Adil Khan
  3. Muhammad Ejaz
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the developing Sino-Iranian comprehensive strategic relations. An attempt has been made to rationally forecast the implications of this growing partnership on the regional actors, particularly India. Recent developments in South Asia and Middle East have attracted the attention of global academia. The rise of China as a major regional economic power and her pursuits in building new alliances in the South Asia and Middle East have started changing the power dynamics in the region. The developments in Sino-Iran bilateral relations have alarmed many regional and global actors. The article is mainly based on secondary sources and arguments have been developed by juxtaposing the information collected through books, newspapers and journal articles with personal reflections. It is found that Soni-Iran relations have great potential to grow in future, whereas China may emerge as a new contestant and a decisive factor in the middle eastern future politics.
Keyswords: China, Iran, Middle East, Politics, South Asia
Pages: 537-548
Article: 50 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)50
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Media Exposure and Thinking Formation of Public Sector University Students about Democracy: A Survey of Lahore City

  1. Sapna Mumtaz
  2. Prof. Dr. Iram Khalid
Abstract: Pakistan is a federal democratic state where the freedom of media is ensured under article 19 of the 1973 constitution of Pakistan. On the one way, democracy provides environment to media to work freely. On the other hand, media give political awareness to masses and enough courage to them that they participate in political processes. Due to huge amount of impact of Pakistani media on educated youth and its importance for a democratic state, the present study was indented to evaluate the relationship between media exposure and thinking formation of students regarding democracy. Survey method was selected as a desire to collect the data under quantitative approach. The city of Lahore was the universe of the study. However, the researcher selected a sample of 160 students of two famous public sector universities of Lahore as Lahore College for Women University and University of the Punjab. As an instrument for data collection, a wellstructured questionnaire was used. Two hypothesis of the present research were accepted through statistical test that is chi-square by using SPSS statistical package for sciences. The results of this study show that Pakistani media has both positive and negative traits. However, it offer a pathway to democracy.
Keyswords: Awareness, Constitution, Democratic, Exposure, Federal, Media, Public Sector Universities, Questionnaire, Students, Survey
Pages: 549-566
Article: 51 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)51
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Social Impacts of Temporary Displacement on Persons with Disabilities (PWDS) in District South Waziristan

  1. Aurangzeb Khan Mehsud
  2. Asma Shaheen
  3. Alam Zeb Khattak
Abstract: This study explores the factors and social impacts of temporary displacement on Persons with Disabilities of District South Waziristan who made temporary displacement from their areas due to military operation against Talibanization. The quantitative method was used in this research and a sample of 100 respondents was chosen from the Persons with Disabilities, located in district Dera Ismail Khan, Tank and also in South Waziristan. Interview was a tool of data collection, using Snow Ball sampling method in which 82 Male and 18 Female were interviewed through questionnaire in order to know the social impacts of temporary displacement and PWDs major problems. This study finds out that temporary displacement had social impacts on the most vulnerable group of Persons with Disabilities. They faced many difficulties and problems related to shelter, education, medical, protection and of discrimination etc as compare to common people who made temporary displacement from South Waziristan.
Keyswords: Military Operation, People with Disabilities, Social Impacts, Temporary Displacement
Pages: 567-576
Article: 52 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)52
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Exploring Students’ Perception about Research at the Higher Education Level

  1. Shakeela Naureen
  2. Dr. Qaisara Parveen
  3. Maria Rehman
Abstract: Research is an important tool for development and success in every country. At the higher education level, practical and theoretical research is a part of every university course work especially undergraduate, postgraduate and Ph.D. levels. Research is a systematic process of collection and analysis of data for the purpose of solving any problem or getting the answer to any question. The problem under this study was to explore student perception about research, research ethics and research plagiarism at the higher education level. It was descriptive research. The population was the public and private universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The students were selected through the convenient sampling technique. After the collection of data the researcher was analyzed the quantitative data through the Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). The qualitative data was analyzed through thematic analysis. The statistical and thematic analysis shows that students very well understand the meaning and definition of research, research ethics and research plagiarism. However, students are unable to perceive rules, regulations and types of research ethics and plagiarism.
Keyswords: Plagiarism, Research Ethics, Students’ perception, Research
Pages: 577-590
Article: 53 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)53
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Dark Clouds with Silver Linings: Use of Mobile Technology during COVID-19 among University Students

  1. Momina Irfan
  2. Dr. Abdul Jabbar
  3. Prof. Dr. Nosheen Fatima Warraich
Abstract: This study aims to explore the academic and leisure use of mobile technologies among students during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also identified the challenges they faced while using mobile technologies. It was a quantitative study based on a questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was used to collect the data from university students to understand their mobile technologies’ use during COVID-19 epidemic. The data depicted that university students used mobile technologies both for leisure and academic purposes to get their everyday information. They used it to share their academic documents, to keep in touch with teachers and fellows, and to save documents. It was noted that they use mobile technologies to engage in academic activities as well as to keep in touch with their loved ones during the period of confinement. The majority of them were users of smartphones. However, they were facing challenges while using mobile technologies such as the high cost of the devices, limited storage facilities, compatibility issues, data insecurity, and low battery life of the devices. The study would help understand the use of mobile technologies in relieving students from stress through their use for leisure purposes. Most importantly, it would articulate the effectiveness of online learning in comparison to traditional learning specifically in the time of confinement.
Keyswords: Academic, Covid-19, Epidemic, Mobile Technologies, Pakistan Pandemic, Recreation
Pages: 591-605
Article: 54 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)54
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Muhammad Zafrulla Khan: The Man Who Struggled For Independence of Muslim Arab World

  1. Masood Ahmed Riaz
  2. Gulab Khan
  3. Qamar ud Din
Abstract: Whenever the name of Muslim Arab world is discussed, one cannot ignore the contributions of Muhammad Zafrulla Khan-a Pakistani diplomat cum cosmopolitan personality-the first Foreign Minister of Pakistan and champion of Kashmir cause in UNO against the Indian counterparts. He was one of the Pakistanis who raised the issue of Palestine and liberation of Muslim Arab world especially Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Sudan and Indonesia in UNO. Not only that but he was the only Pakistani to remain as the President of the United Nations (1961-62), and of the International Court of the Justice/ICJ (1970-73). His contributions included struggle for the independence of Indian Sub-Continent, whereas, he also pleaded the case of the Muslims through the platform of its political party before the Boundary Commission, afterwards, he struggled to get recognition for Pakistan in UNO. This article uses qualitative approach by applying analytical cum narrative methods to find the contributions of Khan in promoting foreign policy of Pakistan. Thus, Khan as foreign minister of Pakistan not only represented his country but also helped Muslim Arab world to get independence.
Keyswords: Arab World, International Affairs, Muslims, Pakistan, United Nations
Pages: 606-616
Article: 55 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)55
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A Correlational Analysis of High and Low Achievers’ Study Habits Withtheir Achievement

  1. Dr. Farah Deeba
  2. Dr. Zunaira Fatima Syeda
  3. Amna Saleem
Abstract: In the present competitive academic scenario, students’ academic achievement has emerged as major indicator of their success and failure. Therefore, academic achievement has always been a stressful phenomenon for the students as it leads them towards being high achiever and low achiever or under achiever. The study was carried out to find out a relationship between high and low achievers’ study habits and their achievement. Total, 379 students including male and females of 10th class from nine secondary schools targeting two Tehsils of a District in Southern Punjab. Respondents were selected through purposive sampling on the basis of their high and poor performance in previous exam of 9th class. A self-developed study habit scale was administered over the students. Percentage, Mean score, Spearman rho and Multiple Regression were the major data analysis techniques of the study. After analysis, it was concluded that majority of the participants had productive study habits as 71% of students had the habit of timely exam preparation. Female students had more positive inclination towards opting good habits while avoiding faulty habits. In most of the themes of habits a positive and significant relationship was explored. A statistically significant and positive effect of various study habits was found on achievement of students. The study recommends that students should be exposed such activities by the teachers that may foster good and productive study habits in them.
Keyswords: Academic Achievement, High and Low Achievers, Study Habits
Pages: 617-631
Article: 56 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)56
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Nation Branding through Religious Tourism in Pakistan by Utilizing Social Media Tools

  1. Muhammad Manshoor Hussain Abbasi
  2. Dr. Musa Khan
Abstract: The objective of this research paper is to examine and explore the potential of religious tourism in Pakistan and to address social media's role in the promotion of religious tourism and nation branding. The article further assesses the importance of tourism sector, exploring the strategies to enhance the cultural exportation, cultural interactions, and portraying the progressive image of Pakistan by highlighting religious tourism and its potential. The study focuses on the various religious sites in Pakistan, representing various religions such as Buddhism, Sikhism, Hinduism, and Islam. Following the qualitative method, data was collected through semi-structured in-depth interviews, comprised of 20 different experts in archaeology, religious/Buddhist sites, and social media-induced tourism. Through thematic analysis, the research findings are described, which indicates that the government negligence, interfaith dissonance, security concerns, and poor cultural heritages are the main issues required to be addressed and resolved for the improvement of all concerned aspects.
Keyswords: Buddhist Sites, Media-Induced Tourism, Nation Branding, Religious Tourism, Social Media
Pages: 632-643
Article: 57 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)57
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The Effect of Servant Leadership on Employees during Organizational Technological Change in Family and Non-Family Business

  1. Dr. Yasmeen Akhter
  2. Dr. Naveed Mushtaq
  3. Humaira Nadeem
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically test a conceptual framework for Servant Leadership that ensures employee championing behavior during organizational change for family and non-family business organizations in Pakistan. Using convenience sampling data was collated from 139 family and non-family business who have gone through a technological change process. Smart PLS 3.0 was used to analyze the data. This paper empirically proved that servant leadership enhances the championing behavior of the employees. In addition, valence and work engagement acted as potential mediators between servant leadership and championing behavior. This paper provides new insights for business leaders to understand the importance of valance during organizational change. It is highly recommended that family and non-family firms equally need to enhance valance for engaging the workers in successful change process. Furthermore, servant leadership must be practiced in family and non-family firms with rigor as it catalyzes the change process.
Keyswords: Management Valence, Championing Behavior, Work Engagement
Pages: 644-654
Article: 58 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)58
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Epidemiological Study on the Prevalence of Winter Depression in Pakistan

  1. Humaira Yasmin
  2. Dr. Muhammad Naveed Riaz
  3. Fakhira Nasir
Abstract: The study has mainly focused on the prevalence of winter depression in Pakistan. Prevalence of winter blues in the non-clinical sample was also explored. It was an epidemiological study. The data was collected from 1024 participants which is collected through purposive sampling technique. The present research was based on “epidemiology” using descriptive technique to explore the information regarding the prevalence of winter depression and winter blues in Pakistan. Thus the research has described the prevalence of winter depression and winter blues. The frequency depicted that out of the 1024 participants; only 6 were reported to have winter depression, 20% experience winter blues and 74% were not affected by the adverse winter season. Women / girls were found to have more winter depression and winter blues as compared to men / boys. Similarly, adults have higher degree of winter depression and winter blues as compared to more adolescents. Prevalence of the winter depression and winter blues was higher in the high altitudes whereas low in the low altitudes. It was the first epidemiological investigation of the prevalence of winter depression and winter blues in Pakistan which explored factual information for researchers and mental health practitioners.
Keyswords: Age, Altitude, Gender, Prevalence, Winter Blues, Winter Depression
Pages: 655-662
Article: 59 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)59
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Impact of Packaging Politics and Branding of Political Leaders on Public’s Political Perception

  1. Faiza Bajwa
  2. Dr. Zahid Yousaf
Abstract: This study examines the impact of political branding and packaging through the use of mass media as a means of disseminating political information to the general public. Packaging politics and political branding can be important sources of influence on the political perception of public. For this purpose, literature related to branding and packaging techniques being used in political communication, and cultivation analysis has been reviewed. The findings of this study enable research to raise awareness by identifying various techniques of packaging and branding used in political communication by the political parties which ultimately have noticeable impact on political perception and the voting behavior. This study includes the quantitative approach of data collection employing non-probability sampling technique. The sample size of this study is 600 respondents, divided into 67% to 33% male and female respectively. This study has revealed that majority of the respondents are heavy media user in regard of politics and projection of political leaders to the highest pedestals by using branding and packaging techniques has subjugated the importance of manifestos of political parties. This study has also resulted in the findings that the voting behavior of the respondents is greatly influenced by the media presentation of political leaders and political parties. The study's cultivation analysis indicates the impact on media consumers from light to heavy viewers. The findings revealed that heavy viewers are more influenced by media content than light viewers.
Keyswords: Heavy Media Consumer, Light Media Consumer, Media Consumption, Packaging Politics, Political Branding, Voting Behavior
Pages: 663-672
Article: 60 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)60
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Role of Peace of Mind for Mental Health Outcomes in Cancer Patients

  1. Maimoona Hussain
  2. Dr. Muhammad Naveed Riaz
  3. Memoona Aslam
Abstract: The present study examined the role of peace of mind for mental health outcomes (depression and anxiety) in cancer patients. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey research design. Participants comprised of cancer patients (N = 300) admitted at government and private hospitals in Panjab. Data were collected using the purposive sampling technique. Peace of Mind Scale (Stud, 2013), Positive Mental Health Scale (Lukat et al., 2016) and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 2000) were used for data collection. Positive mental health worked as a mediator between peace of mind, depression, and anxiety. The findings empirically established that peace of mind is an indicator of having positive mental health and the ability to lower depression and anxiety in cancerous patients. The study is an important addition to the existing body of knowledge on the role of peace of mind for mental health outcomes in cancer patients.
Keyswords: Anxiety, Cancer Patients, Depression, Peace of Mind, Positive Mental Health
Pages: 673-684
Article: 61 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)61
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An Exploratory Empirical Investigation on the Intervening Role of TQM & Big Data Analytics between Industry 4.0 and Firms Innovation Performance

  1. Dr. Naveed Mushtaq
  2. Dr. Yasmeen Akhter
  3. Humaira Nadeem
Abstract: Today Industry 4.0 has restructured the manufacturing into a more sophisticated technology oriented smart industry, with features like IoTs, Big Data, and cloud computing in order to enrich the product quality and reliability with sustainability. However, the research on causal relationship of Industry 4.0 and TQM is under investigated. This study identified a set of quantitative indicators that, from a TQM perspective, can be used to determine the impact of implementing Industry 4.0 technology on any industrial enterprise. The study reviewed various TQM principles, identified quantitative indicators to evaluate, and suggested possible means of data collection and analysis techniques. Therefore, this study provides a solid foundation for determining the quantitative impact of Industry 4.0 on TQM and corporate innovation performance. Production managers need to understand the interchanging role of TQM and Industry 4.0 in leveraging innovation performance for long term organization sustainability in industrial era.
Keyswords: Innovation, Industry 4.0, Total Quality Management, Performance
Pages: 685-699
Article: 62 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)62
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Motivational Level of Vocational Instructors in Special Schools

  1. Dr. Ayesha Wajihullah
  2. Dr. Rukhsana Bashir
  3. Dr. Zahida Parveen
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to identify the factors which create differences in the motivational level of vocational instructors in Lahore city. An intensive review of literature, covered topics related to motivation such as study of organizational climate, job satisfaction and class room performance. As a result, satisfaction, recognition, personal growth, working condition, working environment and level of attraction to work were identified as motivational factors. A questionnaire was developed by using five-point Likert Scale and the estimated reliability of questionnaire was 0.86. A penal of experts evaluated the validity of questionnaire. Questionnaire was pilot tested. A sample of 28 vocational instructors was selected through purposive sampling. The data collected from vocational instructors was analyzed. On the basis of data analysis, it was found that overall working conditions in the schools for students with hearing impairment were relatively better in Lahore city. However, they expressed that refreshers courses for vocational instructors may be arranged to handle vocational training of students with special needs. Researchers proposed improvements on the basis of recommendations.
Keyswords: Hearing Impairment, Motivation, Special School, Vocational Instructors
Pages: 700-708
Article: 63 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)63
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Safe Drinking Water and Local Governments: A Study of Bahawalpur Metropolitan Corporation (2000-21)

  1. Aamir Nazir
  2. Prof. Dr. Syed Mussawar Hussain Bukhari
Abstract: Safe Drinking Water is a fundamental human requirement, which necessitates efficient management for better service delivery. Safe water governance remains hardly understood in Pakistan, even though water-related issues are widespread in the country. Pakistan is a federal state with a three-tier government i.e. national, provincial, and district. Constitutionally, the provision of safe drinking water to all citizens is a provincial responsibility. This research is an analysis of the decentralized water services in Bahawalpur Metropolitan by focusing on the nature of consecutive local governments during 2000-21. The paper examines decentralized initiatives, institutional design, and implementation strategies in the water sector. The study uses primary data from a survey involving 300 respondents and records of water-related institutions. Secondary evidence from published sources has also been utilized. Findings of the research point to the importance of decentralization particularly in stakeholder participation on water issues, power, and responsibilities in the water sector.
Keyswords: Local Governments, Metropolitan, Corporation, Safe Drinking Water, Urbanization
Pages: 709-720
Article: 64 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)64
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The Role of Civil Suits’ Delay in the Criminal Tendencies among the Litigants: Evidence from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

  1. Mr. Mansoor
  2. Faiz Ullah
Abstract: While there is substantial evidence of delay in civil and criminal cases in Pakistan. However, few researchers have highlighted the role of the delay and the provocation of criminal tendencies among the litigants. Therefore, to cover this gap in the literature, this study features litigants whose cases were pending before the civil courts of the district judiciary and high court bench in Swat, Pakistan. The main objective of this study is to investigate the role of delay in promoting criminal tendencies among litigants. A quantitative research approach was utilized and data were collected from 361 respondents through the interview schedule. For respondents’ selection, stratified random sampling was used. The results reveal that there was a significant relationship between delay -independent variable- and criminal thoughts -dependent variable- with P=0.001. There was also a significant relationship with P=0.000 between delay and further aggravation of matter resulting in conflicts. The results further reveal that delay in civil suits between the parties may result in harmful thoughts, and actions for instance revenge. However, there was a non-significant association (P=0.640) between the independent variable delay and initiation of criminal cases.
Keyswords: Civil Suits, Criminal Tendency, Delayed Justice, Litigants
Pages: 721-728
Article: 65 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)65
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Socialization Pattern of Orphans in Orphan Houses of Rawalakot and its Impact on their Lives

  1. Nighat Younus
  2. Dr. Saima Aftab
  3. Isbah Nisar
Abstract: Socialization are the transfer and exchange of norms, values, beliefs, and behaviors to next generation. When growing age is passing some nutrition from society in form of behavior, love, care and affection needed to make its valuable personality. The psychological and mental problems of orphans can cause social disorders unnecessary anxiety, tensions and in later feeling of unhappiness. The majority public opinion is of that mostly the orphans show anti-social behaviour but this is not valid or true perception because only few of them may get involve into antisocial activities. In this study, I have conducted a quantitative research by using sample study through questionnaire survey method from 60 orphan children as sample to analyze the behavior and role of orphans in society. The present research was conducted in read foundation school khrick near Rawalakot which is run by a humanitarian organization Aghosa Al-Khidmat Foundation Pakistan. To explore the orphans’ challenges in Rawalakot and to introduce the orphanage conditions in Rawalakot. The results and findings show that the things are very much disturbed in orphan life that are directly affects their personality, life style and behavior.
Keyswords: Orphan House, Socialization Pattern, Society
Pages: 729-735
Article: 66 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)66
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Talent Management Practices and Employee Performance in Higher Educational Institutions of Quetta City: The mediating role of Employee Creativity

  1. Saima Sahibzada
  2. Dr. Zainab Bibi
  3. Mr. Safiullah
Abstract: The Talent Management practice is hiring the right one, at right time at the right place with efficiency or effectiveness. As the success of every organization is directly related to the success of its employees, the purpose of this research was to investigate the direct effect of talent management practices on employee performance and the mediating effect of employee creativity between the relationship of talent management and employee performance. The faculty members of public and private higher educational institutions were taken as participants. Close-ended questionnaires were circulated among members and 290 responses were collected. To analyze the data Preacher Hayes’s macro process was used and mediation was performed by bootstrapping technique. Findings showed that talent management practices have a positive association with employee performance. Furthermore, it was found that employee creativity does mediate the relationship between talent management practices and employee performance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that innovative and talented mindsets enhance the growth and profitability of the organization and the firm utilize talented intellectual employee as an asset that assists the organization in gaining competitive edge.
Keyswords: Employee Creativity, Employee Performance, Talent Management Practices
Pages: 736-747
Article: 67 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)67
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Impact of Accelerated Learning Programs (ALPs) to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Targets in District Quetta

  1. Imran Khan Batezai
  2. Dr. Abdul Nasir Kiazai
Abstract: This study analytically assesses the impact of Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) centers to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), academic performance of students, and increasing ratio of mainstreamed students in traditional schools after completing their primary education in district Quetta. The ALP centers are providing access and quality education to out of school children (OoSC), dropouts and at-risk children. This study presents the novel data of 200 students from 20 ALP centers. The ALP centers and students were selected through simple random sampling for primary data collection, while source of secondary data was also analyzed to result the main objectives of this study. The primary data was collected through self-administered questionnaire to assess the academic performance of students. The findings show that ALP centers are improving to achieve SDG targets, providing quality education, student’s learning outcomes and academic performance that meet the desired criteria and the transition of students to traditional schools moderately after completing primary education. The conclusion of this study implies that ALPs are improving access education, Quality education and eliminates gender disparities according to SDG targets. It is recommended that students learning outcomes (SLOs), academic performance of students need to improve via improving instructional methods. It is also recommended that the policy of transition of students into traditional schools must be reviewed by educational experts and researchers.
Keyswords: Academic performance, Accelerated Learning Program (ALP), Out of School Children (OoSC), Students Learning Outcomes (SLOs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Pages: 748-761
Article: 68 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)68
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Planktic Foraminiferal Study of Jhimpir Area, Sohnari Member (Laki Formation), Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan

  1. Seema Naz Siddiqui
  2. Humera Naz
  3. Owais Niaz
Abstract: Biostratigraphic study is important to learn about the stratigraphic record which mainly focuses on determining the relative ages of rock strata by studying variety of fossil assemblages within them in order to understand paleo-environment conditions. The Planktonic foraminifera of Sohnari Member (Laki Formation) in Jhimpir Area, Southern Indus Basin, Sindh Pakistan, is described and illustrated on the basis of Planktonic zonation. The main objective of this research work is to collect data and rock samples systematically from the study area, to identify the Stratigraphy of Jhimpir area, to collect fossil content for the biostratigraphic age determination of Laki Formation and systematic paleontogical study of Laki Formation. Shale in Jhimpir having a Spinose species fauna of Globogerina is considered to be of upper Eocene(Ypresian) age and presence of Morozovella and Acarinina species (Latelian) confirm the age of Sohnari Member as Ypresian to Lutetion.
Keyswords: Laki Formation, Limestone, Palaeontology, Sohnari Member, Ypresian (Eocene)
Pages: 762-772
Article: 69 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)69
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Iran as a Permanent Member of SCO: Scope and Challenges

  1. Rana Pervaiz Iqbal
  2. Prof. Dr. Syed Mussawer Bukhari
Abstract: Entering into SCO as a permanent member in September, 2021, Iran is focusing on new economic and strategic goals. Damaged economy and strategic setbacks, due to US sanctions, Iran has focused on the multi-regional support for the strategic and economic takeaways. Iran joined SCO as observer and seated permanently after the struggle of fifteen years. China and Russia at leading positions, Eurasian States with rich resources and Pakistan and India as permanent members, Iran also wants to avail the opportunities as a permanent member of the SCO. The Focused objectives of the article were to explore strategic and economic opportunities and possible challenges for Iran at SCO. The qualitative methodology has been applied to conduct the current study. The present article concludes that SCO may bring huge economic and strategic opportunities for Iran. SCO member states can help Iran coming out of economic depression and providing chances to gain strategic benefits in the region. The article further concludes that US sanctions and some security concerns about Tehran may create some challenges for Iran on the way forward with SCO. Tehran should increase its ties with the SCO bloc and workout wisely on its foreign policy to get maximum benefits from the member states of the organization.
Keyswords: SCO, Iran’s Permanent Membership of SCO, Issues, Opportunities
Pages: 773-782
Article: 70 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)70
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Impact of Interpersonal Relation Leadership, Work Life Balance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Employee Satisfaction

  1. Dr. Rauza
  2. Umama Nayab
  3. Syed Khalil Ahmed
Abstract: The determination of this study is to highlight the importance of employee satisfaction for organizations success and relationship between employee satisfaction and other factors, such as work environment organization citizenship behavior and interpersonal relation leadership. This paper also gives out many ways to through which organizations can improve employee gratification. The purpose of this study is to highlight the reputation of work environment, organization relationship behavior and interpersonal relation leadership in order to make employees happy in banking sector of Pakistan. The data is collected according to attribute like gender, age and education. At the end write down the brief conclusion and recommendations, followed by future directions, which will be benefit both researchers and employer in the relevant segment. Job satisfaction among bank officers has emerged as the critical issue that must be addressed in order for Pakistan banking sector to accomplish its long-term objectives.
Keyswords: Employee Satisfaction, Work Environment, Behavior, Interpersonal Relation Behavior Banking Sector
Pages: 783-793
Article: 71 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)71
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Current Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Dengue Fever among Teenage Students of South Punjab Region, Pakistan

  1. Muhammad Farhan Nasir
  2. Aneela Kanwal
  3. Yusra Samad
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the current knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding different viral infections caused by malaria, especially dengue fever, and its spread among the teenage students of the South Punjab region. This study was conducted among the students of the government school from November 2020 to November 2021. The data was collected by adopting the proper questionnaire method which was self-constructed. The obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS statistical techniques. There were 259 students were selected for this study the average age of the students was 15.5 years and all-male (100%) were selected for this study. 79.87% of students in the first year and (85.0%) of students in the second year were aware of the existence of viral infections caused by mosquitoes and also about dengue fever. A good percentage (81.35%) was aware of the mosquitos, viral infections, and dengue fever and 84.55% were aware of the role and participation of the community to control these diseases. There is a dire need of having regular campaigns in the schools to create the proper awareness about viral infections and dengue fever and its spread and precautions among the students.
Keyswords: Awareness, Dengue Fever, Knowledge, Practise
Pages: 794-803
Article: 72 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)72
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Journalism a Tool of ‘Civil Repair’ or ‘Othering’ in a Society: A Comparative Study of the ‘Christchurch Mosques Shootings’ and the ‘Easter Bombings’ in Sri Lanka

  1. Dr. Muhammad Junaid Ghauri
  2. Dr. Amrat Haq
  3. Riffat Alam
Abstract: The world witnessed two horrific and the deadliest days for the mankind during March and April of 2019 when more than 321 innocent lives of Muslim and Christian worshipers were lost to the hands of religious extremists. Both the Muslims and the Christian were attacked while busy in their worships on their respective religious sacred days. The attacks contained clear intentions of exacerbating religious polarization in both the societies. The media around the globe vigorously and meticulously reported and commented on the incidents and produced a variety of discourses ranging from the ‘white supremacy’ to the ‘Islamist terrorism’ to the ‘polarization’ and to the need of ‘social solidarity’. Mass Media researchers around the globe have explored and analyzed these discourses and have determined the role of media in these critical times. This study is an attempt to find out whether and to what extent the New Zealand and the Sri Lankan media have performed the role of ‘civil repair’ by producing the ‘solidarity discourse’ as proposed by Jeffery Charles Alexander. Or, they have produced the ‘othering discourse’ as argued by Edward Wadie Said. Commissioning the ‘lexicalization’ and the ‘ideological square’ techniques from the Critical Discourse Analysis proposed by Teun Adrianus van Dijk the researcher has examined the editorials and the op-eds from the selected New Zealand and Sri Lankan newspapers. The findings are interesting in a sense that in case of the Christchurch shootings the ‘civil repair’ function of journalism is proved. While, in case of the Easter Sunday shootings in Sri Lanka the ‘othering’ is the predominant discourse.
Keyswords: Christchurch Mosques Shootings, Civil Repair, Civil Sphere Theory, Critical Discourse Analysis, Ideological Square, Lexicalization, Orientalism, Othering Discourse, Solidarity Discourse, Sri Lankan Easter Bombings
Pages: 804-818
Article: 73 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)73
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The Impact of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade on Imports of China with Partner Countries

  1. Amir Mustafa
  2. Zahid Mehmood Akhtar
  3. Muhammad Sohail
Abstract: The aim of this research is to analyze the impact of initiation of SPS and TBT by China for its import, during 1995 to 2018. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and Technical Barrier to Trade by the World Trade Organization have restricted the Chinese trade. In general, it is perceived that non-tariff measure barricade trade. Using the PPML estimation process to manage the zero import flow, and over-dispersion in data of China depend on the gravity model. Results witness that GDP of China and partners, tariff, exchange rate, and distance are core determinants; SPS and TBT initiated and levied by China have affected imports from the WTO members. Results states that China has initiated SPS and TBT, hence country has experienced lower imports. The study also depicts comparative analysis of Chines initiated SPS and TBT effects on import from the high income, upper middle, lower middle, and low income countries. SPS and TBT are equally good as tariff, but China should focus more on NTMs because tariff would decline gradually in WTO regime.
Keyswords: China, Import, SPS, TBT, World Trade Organization
Pages: 819-831
Article: 74 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)74
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Intellectual Property Rights and Right to Health: An International Perspective

  1. Saima Butt
  2. Dr. Naseem Razi
Abstract: Right to health is protected under the international law and World Health Organization (WHO) bounds the member states to ensure the basic health facilities to its citizens. Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are also protected internationally under the umbrella of WTO. WTO also compels the member states to provide minimum protection to IPRs as prescribe by the TRIPS Agreement. The object of this research is to find out a middle way for the member states when conflict arises between right to health and patent protection as exclusive patent monopolies leads towards the high prices of medicines and hindered state authorities to perform its duties regarding the health of its citizens. Methodology has been applied for this research is primarily analytical and bears the qualitative aspect of the issue. This research concluded that state powers seemed to be circumscribe after the implementation of TRIPS Agreement but Doha Declaration circumvent the state powers and it is clearly elaborated in Doha declaration that whenever conflict is arises between right to health and IPRs than right to health will prevail. This research further recommends the developing countries not to indulge in FTAs which restrict the use of TRIPS flexibilities for public health.
Keyswords: TRIPS Agreement, Patent, Right to Health, International Law
Pages: 832-841
Article: 75 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)75
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War and Peace Journalism Perspective in the Leading Press on US-Afghan Taliban Peace Talks

  1. Javeria Karim
  2. Dr. Shahid Hussain
Abstract: This study analyses the war and peace framing perspective on the US-Taliban peace deal in selected newspapers from July 2018 to February 2020. During this period, the formal peace talks between these countries were at their peak after US representative Zalmay Khalilzad's appointment. This study has critically evaluated the framing of elite press, which have essential stakes in this negotiation process. The included countries in this study were Pakistan, US, Russia, and Afghanistan. Content analysis was used to analyze news stories, articles, and editorials of four English newspapers taken from selected countries, i.e. Dawn, New York Times, The Moscow Times, and Afghanistan Outlook. The study's central focus was to figure out the Taliban factor in Afghanistan, especially the approach used by selected Press in responding to the initiative of peace talks between the US and Afghan Taliban. The researchers found that all press predominantly reported in the peace journalism approach during peace talks and adopted neutral approach towards Taliban. The sample newspapers also favored the peace process and focused on solution of the issue by engaging multiparties. The findings of this study are quite in line with the existing scholarship that media adopt peace journalism approach during peace process. Also, the media of different countries framed the situation according to their set policies and interest while presenting their national matters.
Keyswords: Elite Press, Peace Talks, Taliban, US, War And Peace Journalism
Pages: 842-856
Article: 76 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)76
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Challenges for Pakistan and CPEC in China USA Rivalry

  1. Salma Shaukat
  2. Dr. Naudir Bakht
Abstract: This study explains that the world political and economic situation is undergoing complex and profound evolution. The process of globalization has encountered a counter-tide, the process of integration in some regions has been frustrated, and the world has entered a relatively turbulent and changeable period. The South Asian region continues to maintain the overall momentum of its rise and further prominence on the world map, which is inseparable from the efforts of South Asian countries to promote regional cooperation. This study emphasizes that Pakistan is an important member of the South Asian family. Pakistan has always regarded it as its mission to promote prosperity, stability, and security in the Asia-Pacific region. Pakistan is willing to work with regional countries to solidly promote security dialogue and cooperation, deal with various traditional and non-traditional security challenges, jointly maintain a good situation of regional peace and stability, and promote the development of a prosperous South Asian region
Keyswords: Challenges, Cooperation, Pakistan, Security, South Asia
Pages: 857-865
Article: 77 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)77
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Perception of Pakistani Youth Regarding Mediated Sexual Health Education

  1. Maham Zahid Khan
  2. Dr. Noshina Saleem
Abstract: This paper is an attempt to examine the perception of Pakistani youth regarding sexual health education and to analyze the extent to which the youth is exposed to Pakistani media content regarding this. The objective of this study is to explore the exposure, awareness level of Pakistani youth towards sexual health education. For this purpose, the researchers used pretest posttest experimental method with structured questionnaire consisting of closed ended questions. A sample of 150 young people of the age 18- 25 was analyzed under the light of ‘social cognitive theory’. The findings of this study conclude that there is a notable difference between the mean score of Pakistani youth on sexual health awareness before and after the intervention. Media exposure and sexual health education are not positively related to each other as Pakistani media content lack in creating awareness and education on sexual health issues regarding Pakistani youth. The study recommended that Pakistani media can design such content which educate youth how to manage their sexual health problems keeping in view the social and ethical standards and traditions.
Keyswords: Mediated, Pakistani Youth, Perception, Sexual Health Education
Pages: 866-874
Article: 78 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)78
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Factors Affecting Speaking and Listening Skills of English Language Learners at Secondary School Level in Sindh, Pakistan

  1. Sonal Khan Maitlo
  2. Dr. G. Akbar Tumrani
  3. Shoukat Ali
Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore the factors negatively affecting speaking and listening skills of English language learners at secondary school level in Sindh, Pakistan. Speaking and listening are considered primary and foremost skills in English language learning process. Regretfully, these very basic skills are often neglected by the students and are less emphasized by the teachers in Pakistani context. The research underlines the factors hampering the progress of students in improving their speaking and listening skills of English language at the secondary school level. A qualitative method of research was employed for the collection of required data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, based on random sampling technique and the data was analyzed thematically. The findings of the study indicate that due to pronunciation, accent, vocabulary, the influence of mother tongue, second language learners face problems in improving speaking as well as listening skill. The results of the study would be an invaluable source for decision-makers of academic sectors, parents, people, teachers, and other stakeholders respectively. The study recommends some dynamic and practicable solution to the problems of students learning English as foreign language at the secondary school level.
Keyswords: Communication Gap, Grammar, Listening, Pronunciation, Speaking, Vocabulary
Pages: 875-884
Article: 79 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)79
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Effectiveness of Applied Behavioral Analysis vs Verbal Behavior approach in Autism Spectrum Disorder

  1. Annum khan
  2. Dr. Nazia Iqbal
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex neuro developmental disorder marked by chronic social interaction and communication difficulties. This study fills the methodological gap by performing a comparative study of interventions based on applied behavior analysis in a changing social context of Pakistan. This study model is derived from applied behavioral analysis and used its three interventions Discrete Test Training, Video Demonstration, and Verbal Behavior and further divided them into two groups, one group provided Discrete Test Training and Video Modelling and the other group provided verbal behavior and did provided any intervention to controlled group. Cognitive behavioral therapy adopted for mothers of children with autism who suffer from stress, depression and anxiety. Data was collected with the help of Autism Treatment Evaluation Scale (ATEC) and Strength and difficulty questionnaire (SDQ). The sample of the present study consists of total of 42 children further divided into three equal groups of 14 each, ranging from age 6 to 11 years with diagnosis mild or moderate level of autism are included.
Keyswords: Applied Behaviour Analysis, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Discrete Trial Training, Verbal Behavior, Video Modelling
Pages: 885-900
Article: 80 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)80
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Jewellery of the Indian Subcontinent: A Significant Cultural Element

  1. Mariam Ali
  2. Prof. Dr. Masooma Abbas
Abstract: Jewellery of the Indian Subcontinent is one the major components of its material culture. The research aims at exploring and aesthetically appreciating the diverse range of Indian jewellery which developed without any discrimination of age, race, gender, or ethnicity. Limited data is available on Indian art of jewellery making with regards to its types, designs, and symbolism. However, this research focuses on Indian jewellery’s unique features in which some extinct techniques due to emerging technological advancements are also highlighted. The study focuses on traditional jewellery of the Mughals, Rajput, Sikhs, and aristocracy of the Colonial Period that carried cultural and religious significance. The jewellery piece was either to display riches or it symbolized the wearer’s personal ideology. This qualitative research traces historical evidences of trade, gift exchanges, and sources of inspirations. Findings revealed through miniatures, photographs, and historical records show that these jewellery pieces varied from exuberant diamonds and rubies to cowrie shells and glass enamel fillings that were mostly elements of vanity, flamboyance, and ostentation.
Keyswords: Cultural, Indian, Jewellery, Mughals, RajputsSikhs
Pages: 901-915
Article: 81 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)81
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Impact of Remittances on Child Health Outcomes in Punjab, Pakistan

  1. Rabia Arif
  2. Mydda Aslam
Abstract: Primary motive of temporary migration in developing countries like Pakistan is generally in response to the income constraint faced by the households. Therefore, to relax the resource constraint, migrants tend to remit back to their families in home countries. This study attempts to look at the impact of remittances on child health outcomes as measured by height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) & weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) in Punjab, Pakistan using a cross-sectional data set from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). We use an instrumental Variable Approach to correct for the endogenous decision to remit. Two Stage Least Square with an instrument that comprise of an interaction of number of banks in each district with the number of adult males in a household to create household level variation in the instrument has been used to estimate the causal relation between remittances and child’s health outcomes. Our results suggest significant positive impact of remittances on both indicators of child health outcomes. Further this study confirms that gains for girls are greater relative to boys.
Keyswords: Child Health, Gender, Remittances
Pages: 916-929
Article: 82 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)82
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Investigation Of Lost Character of Street Space by Differentiating it from Mere Road

  1. Aneela Yaseen
  2. Shazia Hanif
  3. Farhana Naz
Abstract: Streets are the most important part of the urban environment. Streets, in the past, were the places of informal meetings, kids' play, social gatherings, and processions. Streets have evolved into massive engineering roads that celebrate 20th-century technological development. Considering streets as roads has ruined this very space's socio-cultural importance and real character by giving priority to cars over human beings. The objective of the research is to differentiate the rich street space from the. Through the qualitative method, this study differentiates the use and feel of streets and roads separately. Learning from old street patterns, particularly in medieval Islamic cities, reinforced the socio-cultural aspects of the street. It is concluded that all stakeholders should work together to introduce a new model for balancing people, socio-cultural character, and vehicular traffic. This may prove to be the best solution to bring back the lost character of street space.
Keyswords: Car, Medieval Islamic Street, Road, Street
Pages: 930-941
Article: 83 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)83
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The Impact of Factors on E-Learning Continuance Intention in the Higher Education Sector in Pakistan

  1. Muhammad Haris
  2. Kehkashan Nizam
  3. Muhammad Arif Nawaz
Abstract: The objective of the study is to determine the influence of the factors on continuance intention of e-learning in the higher education sector in Pakistan. The technology acceptance model was used as a basis to study the proposed theoretical relationships. Questionnaire was used to gather the data. The purposive and convenient sampling were used. A total of 400 sample data were analyzed. The initial test was performed by using SPSS and the structural test was performed by using PLS-SEM. The study developed 16 hypotheses. Out of 16 hypotheses, 15 were supported, giving much empirical support to the research model. The results showed positive impact of learner-content, learner-instructor interaction, academic performance, and course design quality on continuance intention of e-learning except for self-efficacy. The study recommends that teachers should boost self-efficacy of students with credible communication and motivation. It will encourage students to get interest in new technology and accept challenges.
Keyswords: E-Learning Continuance Intention, Learner-Content Interaction, Learner-Instructor Interaction, Self-Efficacy
Pages: 942-954
Article: 84 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)84
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Pakistan–Russia Relations: Kashmir and the Primakov Doctrine

  1. Sheila Khalid
Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze Pakistan-Russia relations in the specific context of the Kashmir dispute. The question asked is whether Russia will change its pro-India position on Kashmir. Pakistan and Russia’s relations have been on a positive trajectory since 2010. Their military ties have strengthened, and Russia has acknowledged Pakistan as an essential actor in regional issues. Pakistan has declared neutrality on Russia’s actions, such as the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. Primary sources such as interviews with policy experts have been used and the available literature. Document analysis has also been carried out. Pakistan should not expect Russia to change its pro-India position on Kashmir but it should also continue balancing itself against India by maintaining relations with Russia.
Keyswords: Balancing, BRICS, Geopolitics, Kashmir, Primakov Doctrine, Ukraine
Pages: 955-963
Article: 85 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)85
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Online Transformation of Learning during Covid-19 at Higher Education Institutions

  1. Qudsia Fatima
  2. Shumaila Mahmood
  3. Huma Lodhi
Abstract: The objective of this study was to see how the shift from conventional to online teaching effected classroom environment which overall linked with academic performance of students. Data were collected from students of B. Ed Hons from semester six who learned through online mode. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. Descriptive method was used and a questionnaire at 5 point likert scale was used to know the students’ perceptions during transition from traditional to online mode. Study findings shows that students were not ready to receive online education due to inefficient use of technological facilities. A significant effect of online teaching was seen on students’ learning at higher education level during COVID-19. This has been recommended that online teaching needs more practicable and reasonable other than COVID days as well so as to make students ready to be used to meet odd situation for learning.
Keyswords: COVID 19, Online Learning, Transformation In Education
Pages: 964-971
Article: 86 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)86
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The Economic Geography of Road infrastructure in Pakistan: Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA

  1. Sabila Khatoon
  2. Dr. Hafsa Hina
Abstract: This paper presents an exploratory Spatial Data Analysis of road infrastructure using data of the district profiles of road infrastructure developed by the Urban Unit of the National Transport Research Centre (NTRC) during FY 2019-20. The indicators of the spatial autocorrelation (global and local Moran’s I) were estimated using the neighborhood definition of distance-based spatial weight matrix. Using inverse distance weights matrices at 3 and 5 bandwidths, results show significant positive spatial autocorrelation of road infrastructure at the national level of Pakistan, revealing that districts with a low density of road infrastructure are in the geographic vicinity of the districts of the less-dense road network. Likewise, the districts with more extensive road networks are neighboring the districts with large road networks. Furthermore, it is found that districts lying in the quadrant of the low-low road infrastructure are geographically located in the province of KPK, Sindh, and Baluchistan. While the districts lying in the high-high quadrants are located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. In addition, this study found insignificant positive spatial autocorrelation of road infrastructure when analyzed at the provincial scale of Punjab, Sindh, KPK, and Baluchistan.
Keyswords: Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), New Economic Geography (NEG), Regional Connectivity, Road Infrastructure
Pages: 972-985
Article: 87 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)87
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Identifying Common Study Habits of High Achievers of Undergraduate Students in Pakistan: A Thematic Analysis

  1. Sadi Ul Haq
  2. Ayesha Khalil
Abstract: To identified common study habits of high achievers students in academics, and to understand what strategies set them apart from others. This study helps students who want to gain high score at undergraduate level as well as assist teachers to develop certain study habits in students. Qualitative research design was employed and sample was recruited through non probability purposive sampling technique. Semi-structured, in depth interviews were conducted with 9 students who scored 3.80 CGPA throughout their degree. By using the thematic analysis nine themes emerged with two subcategories that includes: in-class study habits: regular in classes, listening attentively, taking notes and inquisitive/asking questions and at-home study habits: study solo, study schedule (hours in a day, time of a day and proactive exams preparation), self-reliance, use of the internet and undistracted place. Students should be motivated for developing good study habits because good study habits are essential for success
Keyswords: High Academic Achievements, Study Habits, Thematic Analysis, Undergraduate Level
Pages: 986-995
Article: 88 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)88
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Role of Social Media for the Adoption of Cosmetic Procedures among Young Pakistani Women

  1. Maham Arif
  2. Javeria Nazeer
  3. Dr. Zarghuna Naseem
Abstract: Non-surgical facial Cosmetic procedures (CP) are becoming very common and the way it is promoted on social media is effecting Pakistani women who are frequently exposed to advertising of dermatologists, beauty practitioners and aestheticians. The present study examines the role of social media associated with the likelihood of having CP among women of Lahore. A quantitative methodology using convenient sampling and a questionnaire having 31 items (6 subscales) was developed i.e. women’s Interest in CP, Influence of SM, Celebrity endorsements, Practitioners trust, Attractive offers and Adoption of CP. An online survey was conducted among females (n=340). Results showed that there is a positive relationship b/w watching posts on SM for cosmetic treatments and adoption of the treatment i.e. practitioners trust, Attractive offers and influence of SM are the significant Predictors while celebrity endorsement was negatively predicting their decision. Implications for the awareness of mothers and practitioners have been discussed.
Keyswords: Adoption, Beauty Practitioner, Celebrity Endorsement, Facial Cosmetic Procedures, Social Media
Pages: 996-1006
Article: 89 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)89
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Role of Media to Overcome Delay in Justice: Pakistani Prospective

  1. Dr. Usman Hameed
  2. Hafiz Muhammad Salman Shafiq
  3. Dr. Kashif Imran Zadi
Abstract: In developing countries, access to justice is a severe problem. If we talk about Pakistan, it's far worse. This study examines the reasons for delays in access to justice in Pakistani courts. Structured interviews with media individuals working in Lahore were conducted for this study. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data acquired through structured interviews, which were divided into five components, including lawyers' strikes and non-professional behaviour, lengthy procedures, absence of petitioners and respondents, negligence of court employees, an insufficient number of judges, frequent judicial transfers, and a lack of courts. The participants recommended traditional and social media helpful for a speedy trial by disseminating awareness programs emphasizing swift justice's importance. This article will highlight the concerns dealing with the use of freedom of expression of media to be utilized in a proper manner for addressing the issues pertaining to delayed justice, also repercussions of delay in dispensation of judicial remedy.
Keyswords: Awareness Campaigns, Electronic Courts, Bar Council, Media Personnel, Supreme Judicial Council (SCJ)
Pages: 1007-1014
Article: 90 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)90
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Checking the Validity of Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis: Analysis from Developed and Developing Countries

  1. Rakia Nasir
  2. Maqbool Sial
  3. Faheem Riaz
Abstract: The existence of the Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis (REH) in the case of the Group of Seven (G7) and the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) nations is investigated in this study. The objective of this study is check the idea that combining the cases of industrialized and emerging economies will demonstrate REH. General Government Revenue, Government Budget Deficit, General Government Gross Debt, Household Final Consumption Expenditure, Disposable Income, General Government Total Expenditure, and Wealth are all measured using a panel data set from 2001 to 2021.Five distinct unit root tests were used to validate the stationarity of selected variables. Considering the Hausman test, researcher estimate the random effect model before Panel Least Squares (PLS). The Wald test has rejected all restrictions applied to verify the presence of REH in developed and emerging economies after applying PLS. According to the Findings the Fiscal policy should be one of the stabilizing measures in this understudied economic world to regulate income and expenditures.
Keyswords: Budget Deficit, G7, Government Debt, SAARC, Tax Revenue
Pages: 1015-1025
Article: 91 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)91
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Investor Protection as the Objective of Securities Regulation: A Comparative Study of Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan and IOSCO Principles

  1. Noor-ul-ain Shabbir
Abstract: Investors play a vital role in the market’s development which certify the protection of investor’s rights as one of the significant objective of Securities regulation. The fairness of the market also demands Investor protection. In Pakistan, The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP), established in 1997, works as a regulatory body whose job is to regulate securities including investor’s rights protection. However, SECP is unable to fulfill the objectives till now, therefore, it is need of the hour to develop an adequate and satisfactory mechanism in light of the principles laid down by International Organization for Securities Commission (IOSCO) to ensure investor protection. This paper based on analysis and comparison between SECP and IOSCO’s investor protection mechanism, using analytical and descriptive methodology, covers the deficiencies in current Pakistan’s law like being silent about misconduct of intermediaries, and absence of penalties to the accused in case of breach of law.
Keyswords: International Organization Securities Commission’s (IOSCO), Investor Protection, Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP)
Pages: 1026-1034
Article: 92 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)92
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Managing Conflicts: A Comparative Analysis of Anchorpersons of Political Talk Shows of Pakistan

  1. Dr. Maira Qaddos
  2. Dr. Noshina Saleem
Abstract: Pluralistic media is considered to be an independent platform for discussion, debate and exchange of opinions regarding any conflicting issue. Study intends to explore role of anchorpersons in managing conflicts among participants in discussion in political talk shows of Pakistan. The main objective of this study is to explore the role of anchorperson as facilitators to escalate or de-escalate the conflicts. Quantitative Content analysis of political talk shows of the leading TV channels, from Jan, 2012 to Dec, 2012, is conducted to observe the role of anchorpersons in conflict management. Moreover, a survey is also conducted in order to find out the audience perception about handling of conflicts by the anchorpersons. Findings of both the methods are analyzed in the light of theory of common ground. Study concludes that balance of panel and attitude of anchorperson doesn’t have any pivotal relationship with escalation of conflict. Language and tone are found to create a strong impact on nature of conflict in the talk shows. Unnecessary interference is found to create issue-oriented impact on conflict escalation and role of guests is found to be equally important or even more than anchorperson on escalation of conflict.
Keyswords: Anchorperson, Conflict Escalation, Conflict Management, Pluralistic Media, Political Talk Shows
Pages: 1035-1037
Article: 93 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)93
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An Architectural Study on Spatial Configuration of Emergency, Out Patient Department (OPD) and Isolation w.r.t. Infectious Diseases-Focused on Secondary Level Hospitals of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa Province

  1. Syed Mazhar Ali Shah
  2. Dr. Ubaid Ullah
  3. Dr. Saima Gulzar
Abstract: The objectives of this study are to explore the role of spatial configuration in the possible spread and control measure of infectious disease in the secondary hospitals of the province of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The healthcare delivery system has been challenged in the world on the onset of infectious diseases since many people faced life threatening situations during the pandemic. This paper used space syntax Method, a field of study on the impact of spatial configuration and human behavior, used in more than two hundred universities of the world as research tool. The results show that in case study more spaces to be traversed for reaching isolation room as compared to case study and the least number of spaces for reaching isolation rooms were found case study 2. Case study 3 shows highest number of spaces for reaching isolation rooms, indicating more spatial interaction leading to more spatial contamination.
Keyswords: Emergency, Healthcare Delivery System, Infectious, Isolation, Space Syntax
Pages: 1048-1063
Article: 94 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)94
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Factors Influencing the Choice between Dirty and Clean Energy Sources: Evidence from Pakistan

  1. Muhammad Rizwan Manzoor
  2. Ghulam Mustafa
  3. Amanat Ali
Abstract: Energy Ladder Hypothesis (ELH) explains the relationship between income and households’ decision to use dirty or clean energy sources for the purpose of cooking, heating, and lightening. Therefore, the underlying research paper aims to estimate the validation of the ELH in Pakistan, moreover, to estimate the other socioeconomic factors which influence the households’ decision to use energy sources. We have used HIES (2018-19). The findings identify that ELH holds in Pakistan, which explains that the increase in income level drives households to shift from dirty energy (firewood, dung cake, charcoal, agriculture waste) utilization to the clean energy sources (electricity, and gas). Moreover, higher quintiles of income are found using cleaner energy sources than the bottom income quintiles. ELH holds by using income quintiles. Other factors such as household characteristics (family size, dependency ratio, education, gender, and locational dwelling) are found influencing the decision to use dirty or clean energy sources.
Keyswords: Dirty and Clean Energy Choices, Energy Ladder Hypothesis, Households' Energy Demand
Pages: 1064-1075
Article: 95 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)95
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Legal Framework of Right of Self Defense in Cyber Warfare: Application through Laws of Armed Conflict

  1. Shan Ali
  2. Sabira Naz Qureshi
Abstract: Cyberwarfare is a worldwide danger to governments, organizations, and people. Cyber Warfare affects computer systems and networks as a battlespace. International Law faces this difficulty. Without technology, war is unthinkable today. Cyberwarfare is a new tactic of warfare in armed conflicts. As modern warfare doesn't follow IHL standards and concepts. The legal vacuum in present legislation and issues IHL faces when considering Cyber Warfare is also noted. Eventually, IHL is adopted in Cyber Warfare to resolve problems quickly. In recent decades, the use of cyber methods in armed conflicts and how International Law applies to such circumstances has been a major concern. In this research paper, I first evaluate major humanitarian and legal concerns and show that the use of computer networks during armed conflicts is now a reality and a critical issue for the international community to address. In today's malware-ridden cultures, malicious cyber activities may disrupt and hurt people. Second, I present a short review of the international debate concerning cyber warfare during armed conflicts, focusing on the applicability of the Law of Armed Conflicts to cyber espionage. Cyber activities, or cyber warfare, are unquestionably governed by IHL. I also look at how IHL rules and principles apply to situations other than armed attacks involving cyber operations, as well as adequate protective regimes for cyber-attackers and infrastructure, such as health and humanitarian facilities. In this study, I examine whether IHL may be applied to cyber-warfare if it becomes an armed conflict. Conservative Critique evaluates the present IHL infrastructure to govern Cyber Warfare.
Keyswords: Accountability, Conservative Critique, Cyber Warfare, International Humanitarian Law, Proportionality
Pages: 1076-1091
Article: 96 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)96
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Stability in Afghanistan: Ramifications for Pakistan

  1. Muhammad Akif Rashid
  2. Fazal Elahi Bilal
  3. Rashida Abbas
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the Stability in Afghanistan and its ramifications for Pakistan. The United States departed from Afghanistan territory on the 30th of August 2021 and closed a chapter of the war against terrorism that started in 2001. This study was conducted through the use of a semi-structured interview technique and then thematic analysis to find out the outcomes. The study concludes that stability in Afghanistan has many ramifications for Pakistan. Furthermore, that how the Taliban are acting after taking power in Afghanistan? It highlighted how might economic collapse in Afghanistan affect the security and stability of the country and the potential for mass displacement? With a discussion as to what are the possible measures necessary for the stability of the Taliban government in Afghanistan? This study recommends that Afghan’s Government has to improve human rights situation so the international community accept them and maintain peace in Afghanistan as well.
Keyswords: Economic Collapse, Ramification, Security, Strategic, Terrorism, Stability
Pages: 1092-1101
Article: 97 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)97
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Sustainable Tourism through Community Participation in Heritage Conservation: A Case Study of Chauburji Lahore

  1. Sana Younas
  2. Dr. Saima Gulzar
Abstract: The objective of this particular research is to investigate the scope of community participation of the residents around the selected historic monument site of Chauburji, Lahore for sustainable tourism. The city of Lahore in Pakistan like other third world country cities is facing the adverse impacts of urbanization and infrastructure development. This process of new development and remodeling of the city excluding the historicity of the city is generating the chaotic situations in the city as seen in the case of Chauburji historic monument. The visual and questionnaire survey was conducted for the collection of data. The results showed that encouragement from the government is needed to initiate the active participation of the community. Moreover, the recommendations are made for the public and private partnerships. A participatory plan was also devised indicating the proposed recommendations for sustainable tourism and historic monuments being part of the integrated planning processes.
Keyswords: Chauburji, Community, Heritage, Participation, Sustainable, Tourism
Pages: 1102-1110
Article: 98 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)98
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Whistle-blower Intention and the Impact of Ethical Decision-Making in Combat Corporate Corruption

  1. Naheeda Ali
Abstract: This study aims to combat corporate corruption by working on defects in ethical awareness and judgment, resulting in unethical corporate decisions and accounting fraud. The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) estimates that fraud costs the typical business 5% of annual sales, or $3 trillion worldwide (ACFE, 2016). Sarbanes-Oxley and Dodd-Frank incentivize misbehavior disclosure to reduce fraud damages. Research has studied the effect of whistleblower moral reasoning on financial statement deception intents. This study investigates the influence of two moral reasoning markers on disclosing misbehavior internally or externally. This research examines moral commitment, ethical judgment, and whistleblowing goals in light of corporate governance. A qualitative method was used to analyze statutes, local and international protocols, rules and regulations of Pakistan and developed countries. The findings also suggest that an ethical issue's recognition, perceived importance, and ethical judgement are all positively connected to whistleblowing intention. Furthermore, locus of control has positively modulated the connection between ethical decision-making and whistleblowing intention.
Keyswords: Combat Corporate Corruption, Corporate Governances, Ethical Decision Making, Ethical Judgment, Perceived, Whistle-Blower Intention
Pages: 1111-1124
Article: 99 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)99
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Impact of Psychological Contract Breach on Employees’ Sabotage and Whistle-Blowing Behaviors through Perceived Organizational Frustration

  1. Sania Arif
  2. Sidrah Al Hassan
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the negative impact of psychological contract breach (PCB) on employees’ undesirable behaviors through perceived organizational obstruction with the theoretical support of affective event theory. PCB is the violation of perceived obligations of the company which may lead the employees to exhibit detrimental behaviors. The data were collected from the employees of private telecom companies including U-fone, Telenor, and Mobilink in Rawalpindi/Islamabad at the researcher’s convenience using a self-administered questionnaire with a lag of one week. PCB was tapped at Time-1, perceived organizational frustration at Time-2 and dependent variables at Time-3. Initial screening tests on data were applied in SPSS and Amos whereas the hypothesized relationships were tested in process MACRO. The data provided support to all the direct and indirect paths of the proposed model. Limitations and future avenues are given at the end.
Keyswords: PCB, Perceived Organizational Frustration, Sabotage, Whistle-Blowing
Pages: 1125-1138
Article: 100 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)100
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Fall of Kabul: A Critical Analysis of The Failure of the American’s Liberal Norms

  1. Fazal Elahi Bilal
  2. Muhammad Akif Rashid
  3. Rashida Abbas
Abstract: The objective of the study is to examine the degree of failure factors of the phenomena of American Liberal norms in Afghanistan. Under the backdrop of the Doha agreement on 15 August 2021, the fall of Kabul accrued, Taliban entered Kabul without confrontation from the Afghan military forces. A qualitative method for in-depth analysis was employed, using questionnaire technique. America spending almost a trillion dollars, two decades presence with more than seven lac allied military forces, failed to cultivate liberal values in afghan society. This study concludes that neither liberal norms/ values nor did the democratic process take roots because, values were superficial, creating synthetic, and engineered civil society. Hence, the Free Market economy neither has benefits for the grass root level nor provides sustainable development. This study recommends that Liberal norms should always be introduced in its true sense, keeping in view of the native culture, traditions as well as its compatibility.
Keyswords: Culture, Ideology, Peace, Tribal Society, Values
Pages: 1139-1148
Article: 101 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)101
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Role of the ‘Popular Will’ in the Emergence of the ‘Democratic Norms’ and ‘Socioeconomic Performance’ as Major Sources of State Legitimacy

  1. Waheed Ahmad Khan
  2. Muhammad Usman Askari
Abstract: Scholars and policymakers linked to global democracy project assume that ‘popular will’ and ‘democratic norms’ are complementary to each other. Based on this assumption, they claim that if impediments to popular will are removed, people will automatically adopt democratic norms. In this paper, we challenge this assumption and argue that there could be situations when public opinion might be in favor of non-democratic norms as well. We do acknowledge that significance of popular will in global political culture led to democracy as the key source of legitimacy. However, at the same time, demands to satisfy public opinion forced state leaders to provide public goods. Hence, instrumental legitimacy arising out of ‘socioeconomic performance’ provided base of support to non-democratic leaders. Consequently, it is recommended that to win over public opinion democratic norms must compete with other non-democratic sources of legitimacy, and that free public opinion will not automatically lead to democracy.
Keyswords: Democratic Norms, Political Participation, Popular Will, Redistributive Justice, Socioeconomic Performance, State Legitimacy
Pages: 1149-1161
Article: 102 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)102
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Religion-Science Discourse: A Western Perspective

  1. Ahmad Hussain Bukhari
Abstract: The present study is a brief overview of the intellectual debate in the western world concerning the mutuality of religion and science. Conflict and reconciliation are two prevailing views concerning this discourse. The conflict thesis is the result of modernity, emphasizing the separation of two domains. Religion has had an established plausibility for centuries; it has been there since the dawn of humanity, and the belief in a grand existence, beyond the domain of the observable, has become a part of the way human beings think and feel. On the other hand, science has an equally ancient beginning, and its proponents believe that logical thinking and empirical observation and testing are the only way to approach the truth. Nevertheless, it has been found that despite an ongoing intellectual debate, a balanced coherence between science and religion still needs to be worked out to meet the civilizational challenges of the present day.
Keyswords: Conflict of Ideas, Reconciliation, Religion and Science, Scientific Inquiry
Pages: 1162-1170
Article: 103 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)103
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Religious Freedom, Foreign Direct Investment, and Economic Growth: Evidence from South Asian Countries

  1. Zaheer Abbas
  2. Muqarab Abbas
  3. Khawar Abbas
Abstract: The focus of the current study is to examine the enormous effects of religious freedom and foreign direct investment on economic growth for Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. These effects are captured by investigating classical production functions where religious freedom and foreign direct investment are the major determinants of economic growth. To determine the significance of these determinants, the study examines the panel data from 1990-2016 gleaned from the World Development Indicator (WDI) and International Country Risk Guide (ICRG). The result of the Hausman test reveals the problem of endogeneity; thus, the model was empirically estimated by employing the 2SLS, and the robustness of the results was also confirmed by using the 3SLS methodology. The empirical result revealed that an increase in religious freedom surges economic activity and enhances growth. The coefficient of foreign direct investment indicates that a rise in foreign direct investment is beneficial for growth in the selected economies. These results confirm that economies with religious freedom attract foreign direct investment, boost their economic activity, and consequently, economic growth. Hence, the government should adopt those policies that promote religious freedom and enhance foreign direct investment to achieve sustained economic growth.
Keyswords: Economic Growth, Endogeneity, Foreign Direct Investment, Panel Data, Religious Freedom
Pages: 1171-1184
Article: 104 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)104
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Factors Affecting Customer Purchase Intention in Smart Phone Industry of Pakistan

  1. Kehkashan Nizam
  2. Hafsa Masood
  3. Faizan Ul Haq
Abstract: The study aims to determine the influence of consumer values (i.e. social value, emotional value, functional value) and brand identification on brand loyalty. The data was collected through a survey questionnaire spreading among customers using smartphones from Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 312 sample data were analyzed and delivered statistical results by developed hypotheses. SmartPLS SEM and SPSS were used to test the hypotheses. The study found a positive and significant relationship between consumer values, brand identification, loyalty, and purchase intention. The study found brand loyalty mediates the relationship between functional, social value and brand identification, and intention of purchase except for emotional value. The study results recommend that marketers would analyze and focus on the customer's emotional values more as it influences the decision-making behavior and intention to buy the smartphone of the customer in order to get a better return on investments in marketing promotions.
Keyswords: Brand Identification, Brand Loyalty, Consumer Value, Purchase Intention
Pages: 1185-1196
Article: 105 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)105
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The Three Gaps Phenomenon in Pakistan: Evidence and Implications

  1. Zaheer Abbas
  2. Ahsan Abbas
  3. Muqarab Abbas
Abstract: The study analyzes the three gap trends namely the trade deficit, fiscal deficit, and saving-investment gap, and their implications for the Pakistan economy using time series data from 1976 to 2020. The three gaps have interlocking transmission mechanisms that become difficult to devise a prescription for them separately. The stabilization reforms needed then are supposed to have simultaneous reactionary forces that can correct or at least curtail these deficits. This two-pronged analysis first workout the evidence of the link among these three balances/deficits and then draws out the implications on the economy of the twin deficits and saving investment gap over time to achieve sustained growth and economic development. For this purpose, there have been estimated ARDL and cointegration carried out for causality analysis. The results reveal the presence of short-run. A bi-directional causality is supported between external debt, current account, and fiscal balances/deficits. These two deficits are also closely associated with macroeconomic variables.
Keyswords: ARDL, Co-integration, Economic Growth, External Debt, Time Series Data, Tri-deficit
Pages: 1197-1207
Article: 106 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)106
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Emotional Intelligence and Self Efficacy as Predictors of Life Satisfaction among Doctors working in Emergency Department

  1. Arooj Sammer
  2. Dr. Saima Majeed
Abstract: The main aim of this is to study Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Self Efficacy (SE) as the determinant of Life Satisfaction (LS) in doctors working in emergency department (ED). It was a correlational study with cross-sectional research design. A purposive sample of 118 doctors working in emergency departments from the age range of (M=29.94, SD=5.98) were taken. Trait Emotional Intelligence (TEI) Questionnaire Short Form (Petrides, 2009), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSF) (Schwarzer, 1995), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL) (Diener, 1985) along with the demographic sheet as measurement tools. The outcomes revealed that Emotional Intelligence and Self Efficacy predict Life Satisfaction. There was a positive correlation found between EI and LS 0.16* and GS and LS .35**. Moreover, Emotional Intelligence and Self Efficacy proved predictors of Life Satisfaction in doctors. It was concluded that emotional intelligence and self-efficacy proved positive predictors of Life satisfaction in doctors who are working in ED.
Keyswords: Emergency Department, Emotional Intelligence, General Self Efficacy, Life Satisfaction
Pages: 1208-1219
Article: 107 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)107
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Deterioration of Nationalism under Globalization in Ayad Akhtar’s American Dervish

  1. Sundes Bashir
  2. Farkhanda Shahid Khan
Abstract: This paper endeavors to analyze how Nationalism is dismantling in the hands of western society under the so-called concept of globalization. People of third-world countries especially Pakistan have engaged themselves in various social concerns and prefer moving somewhere else for a better quality of life. Political as well as socio-economic instability has compelled the people to move into different domains of life, distanced from their birthplaces and relationships to settle and work in foreign countries. Moreover, in the people of Pakistan, cultures are so deeply woven that it becomes difficult for anyone to absorb the foreign culture. Consciousness is raised when people face cultural differences and feel marginalized. Under the theoretical framework of Nationalism, the concepts of Anthony D. Smith, Habswom, and Anderson have been taken to analyze the selected text American Dervish. This research is an attempt to reveal, how Pakistani immigrants struggle to get back their traditions and beliefs inherited from their ancestors in a new world of broader possibilities that is enticing and threatening. This study concludes that globalization is ripping national identities to pieces.
Keyswords: Culture, Globalization, Hybrid, Immigration, Nationalism, Traditions
Pages: 1220-1230
Article: 108 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)108
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Patterns of Governance in Pakistan: A Shift from Democratization to Consolidated Democracy

  1. Dr. Rehana Saeed Hashmi
Abstract: Pakistan has faced numerous issues since its inception but predominantly all are related to Governance. From early migration crisis to hostile neighborhood, lack of infrastructure, center-province tensions, patron-client polity, etc. the prevalent challenges have developed a socio-political environment contrary to strengthening the process of democratization. The unusual and unconstitutional power shifts from civilian to military regimes have granted unstable, dysfunctional, and undemocratic institutional arrangement. The civilian government of 2008-13 was the turning point in the history of Pakistan that worked to avail the chance to inculcate democratic norms in the system by introducing 18th constitutional amendment. The objective of the study is to highlight the pattern of governance in Pakistan by reviewing the working of institutional structure to consolidate democracy in the state. This is a Qualitative study having focus on exploratory approach.
Keyswords: Consolidated Democracy, Democratization, Governance, Political Consensus
Pages: 1231-1242
Article: 109 , Volume 3 , Issue 2
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2022(3-II)109
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