ISSN(Print): 2709-6254 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-6262 | ISSN-L : 2709-6254

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 3

External Invasions in Afghanistan: A Comparative Analysis of USSR and USA

Authors:
  1. Aamir Junaid
  2. Shahid Mehmood
  3. Muhammad Muneeb Sarwar
Abstract: Afghanistan is a country that has been suffering for the last forty years. The new generation of Afghanistan has not seen peace in the country. First Soviets invaded and approximately after one decade, America invaded Afghanistan. Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan in 1979 and remained till 1989. Thousands of Afghan men, women and children have been killed by the Soviet military. A large number of people migrated towards Iran and Pakistan. After a deadly civil war, the Taliban emerged and established a government in Afghanistan and the people of Afghanistan faced brutalities of the Taliban. Taliban remained in power from 1996 to 2001 ruled the country with strict laws. The incident of 9/11 changed the security decorum of the world. America blamed Osama Bin Laden for the 9/11 tragedy and demanded Osama Bin Laden from the Taliban regime. Mullah Omer was the chief of the Taliban militants and he refused to hand over Osama Bin Laden to the American authorities. The United States attacked Afghanistan in October 2001 to demolish the Taliban and Al Qaeda nexus in Afghanistan. After 20 years of war in Afghanistan, America could not defeat the Taliban militants. America has spent over 3 trillion dollars and lost over 2500 soldiers in Afghanistan. America has signed a peace agreement with the Taliban militants to end the longest war of American history. This paper compares the invasions of America and the Soviets in Afghanistan. This research enables readers to understand the commonalities between both wars.
Keyswords: Afghanistan, Al Qaeda, America, Osama Bin Laden Soviet, Taliban
Pages: 01-08
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)01
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)01
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Education of Transgender Community in Punjab: Heading the Unheeded

Authors:
  1. Dr. Muqaddas Butt
  2. Dr. Humaira Irfan
  3. Miss Mehnaz
Abstract: This study was conducted in Punjab (Pakistan) with an aim to explore the initiatives taken regarding the education (basic/technical/vocational/primary/secondary education) of transgender community. To investigate the research problem, semi structured interviews of the two governmental and nongovernmental officials promoting transgender education in Punjab and focus group interviews of five transgender individuals enrolled as students were conducted. The results show that there were limited educational opportunities offered and educational institutions (both in government and private sector) established to promote the education of transgender in Punjab. Regardless of large population of transgender community in Punjab, only a small percentage of transgender had access to education and the rest was found struggling for earning by adopting professions such as begging and dancing. Regardless of the laws made by the government in favor of transgender community, the transgender faced societal stigmatization which results into less job opportunities for them in the market. The study suggests that more initiatives need to be taken to promote transgender education and serious efforts are needed to be made to address the implementation gap of the policies and plans concerning the transgender community.
Keyswords: Education, Initiatives, Transgender
Pages: 09-17
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)02
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)02
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The Use of L1 in English Language Classrooms: A Case of Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab

Authors:
  1. Dr. Muhammad Arslan Raheem
  2. Jam Khan Muhammad Sahito
  3. Dr. Habibullah Pathan
Abstract: The use of first language has always been an element of concern for the educationists, particularly, in case of English language classrooms. L1 is used in a number of ways in schools specifically in English language classrooms. There are classes where the practices of teaching and learning are solely carried out in L1- in this case Siraiki and Urdu. In this study the aim was to explore the use of L1 in English language classrooms at the given locale. The objectives were to identify the practices and the reasons behind such use of L1 in English language classrooms. The data was collected through classroom observations and follow-up interviews with the teachers. Both the methods involved two separate tools for the collection of data. For classroom observation, an observation sheet was used and for interviews the researcher used a recorder to help in transcription and analysis of the data. Finally, the results reflected that the L1 usage existed in various forms like code-switching, mixing, and in most of the cases, its sole use. The various reasons behind that have been discussed in the results section.
Keyswords: Code Switching, Code-Mixing, English Language Teaching, L1
Pages: 18-23
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)03
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)03
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Effect of Visual Learning Style on Academic Achievement at Secondary Level

Authors:
  1. Nayyer Sultana
  2. Dr. Shazia Zamir
  3. Sher Muhammad
Abstract: Progress in this world can be achieved by improving the quality of education. Closing schools and staying home during the COVID19 pandemic affected the educational process of students. Academic activities were transferred to digital resources. They are the only tools for students to continue their educational process. The Pakistani government has taken initiatives to raise educational standards by introducing visual learning styles through online learning in government agencies in Rawalpindi. The purpose of this research is to discover the influence of visual learning styles on high school academic performance through online learning. 30 students from 10 classes are selected as a sample. Sample selection uses convenient sampling techniques. A quasi-experimental design is adopted and two groups are selected, one is the control group and the other is the experimental group. The experimental group used visual learning styles during six weeks of treatment through online learning. The tools used to collect data are pretest and posttest. 20 lessons are provided through online learning using visual learning styles. Use the same pre and posttest. The test was verified by experts. The reliability of the test is determined by the SPSS reliability analysis. The t test is used to compare the data of the control group and the experimental group. The experimental results show that the average scores of students who use visual learning methods to teach through online learning are significantly higher than those who use traditional methods to teach. Some suggestions are made for teachers to use visual learning methods through digital mode.
Keyswords: Academic Achievement, Learning Style, Secondary Level, Visual Approach
Pages: 24-33
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)04
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)04
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Challenges of Teachers’ Job Satisfaction and its Effects on Students’ Learning at Secondary Level in Punjab Province, Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Dr. Gulzar Ahmed
  2. Dr. Shahid Hussain Mughal
  3. Ishfaque Ali Kalhoro
Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to highlight challenges hinder teachers’ job satisfaction, its effects on students’ learning and suggest some measures to overcome the problem for further improving students’ learning outcomes at secondary level in Pakistan. All teachers 4237 (2257M+1980F) teaching secondary classes in total 212 (113M+99F) public sector secondary schools of district Bahawalnagar, Punjab province, Pakistan, were selected as population of the study.Out of total population, 300 (150M+ 150F) teachers teaching secondary classes from 60 (30M+30F) schools (5 teachers from each school) both urban and rural areas were randomly selected as sample of the study. This study was descriptive in nature, so a self-developed questionnaire consisting on Five - point Likert scale was used for collection of data from teachers. The collected data was organized, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using descriptive statistics like frequency score, percentages, mean score, standard deviation and t-value. Results of the study indicated that teachers’ job satisfaction has positive impact on students’ learning. There are many indicators responsible for teachers’ job dissatisfaction, but by provision of good salary, conducive working school environment, maintenance of discipline, physical and instructional facilitates, professional modern ICT training and positive head teachers ‘attitude with teachers can prove fruitful results to overcome teachers’ job dissatisfaction problems ultimately improve students’ learning.
Keyswords: Challenges, Improvement, Job Satisfaction, Strategies, Students’ Learning
Pages: 34-48
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)05
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)05
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Opportunities for the Education System of Pakistan in COVID 19

Authors:
  1. Dr. Karim Haider Syed
  2. Dr. Imran Khan
Abstract: Online education will be a fairly good alternative for students in Pakistan, not even in the light of the experience of the first wave of the epidemic. How will students, who are constantly struggling to keep up with the classroom and persuade them to study wholeheartedly, study at home voluntarily and with great success? There is no doubt that the current difficult situation demands that Pakistan also pay more attention to its education sector than ever before and ensure maximum use of modern technology in this field. This research project suggest that lot of tools of modern technology that are developed to counter the challenges to education system in epidemic can be useful in normal education life after the end of epidemic. The novel Corona virus has affected thousands of people in Pakistan on the one hand, and economic, educational, business and social activities on the other. If this epidemic has created problems for the education system it also forced the authorities to introduce the better tools of modern technology in education system. Education sectors are adopting modern technological tools during the global epidemic of COVID 19. Pakistan has exposed, among other issues, the flaws and weaknesses of the education system like other developing countries. Due to this epidemic in Pakistan, lockdown has severely affected the educational careers of students. The exams are online; somewhere the classes are taking place in the virtual world classrooms instead of schools, colleges and universities. But the rate of continuing education online in Pakistan is very low. Most of the students just stayed at home during the lockdown and can continue their education online from home if equipped with necessary facilities.
Keyswords: COVID 19, Education, Online Learning, Opportunities, Remote Teaching
Pages: 49-58
Article: 6 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)06
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)06
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Post-legislative Problems and Prospects of Girl’s Child Marriages in Rural Punjab, Pakistan: A Parent’s Perspective

Authors:
  1. Dr. Beenish Ijaz Butt
  2. Dr. Uzma Ashiq
  3. Dr. Abubakar Nazeer Choudhry
Abstract: This paper aims at describing and exploring the prevalence of girl child marriage and its causes from parents’ point of view in Punjab. To explain and explore the said issue, study was based on qualitative social research methodology and used phenomenological research approach. A loosely structured interview guide was developed for data collection. Criterion for respondents’ selection was decided as only those parents who married their at least one daughter between 12 to 15 years of age. A total number of 21 parents were interviewed using loosely structured interview guide till the data was saturated. Data was transcribed and analyzed by using data analysis process as explained by Cresswell (2013) and major themes extracted from data were Girl’s child marriages: a popular practice in Punjab, Persistent Social Problems surrounding girls’ child marriages and Norms versus State Policies. When this whole scenario is seen from the parents’ perspective, state is highly responsible for such grave issues. By seeking the flip side of the page, firstly families are highly concerned with the security of their girls. The girls’ rape cases are at rise in the country. But state is unable to give them legal protection. Secondly wide spread poverty is not yet controlled. So to avoid such horrible situation along with customs, parents are compelled to marry their young daughters and have included girls’ child marriage in their customary framework. It is suggested that state should revise its policies on the basis of primary researches carried out in different corners of Punjab.
Keyswords: Girl’s Child Marriages, Norms, Parent’s Perspective, Popular Practice, Post-Legislative Problems, Punjab, Rural Culture, State Policies
Pages: 49-58
Article: 7 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)07
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)07
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Effect of Home Assignments on Students Social Activities at Elementary Level in Azad Kashmir Bagh

Authors:
  1. Dr. Muhammad Mushtaq
  2. Jabeen Syed
  3. Tehzib Mehreen
Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the impact of home assignment on student social and academic activities. The data was collected to get information from 300 girls and boys elementary students of public sector schools in district Bagh Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The questionnaire was developed to get the information about the impact of home assignment on student’s social activities. The data was analyzed through SPSS 23rd version and chi square test was used. It was found that home assignments improved many habits of the students like their learning, hand writing, study habits and made the students responsible and punctual. Students after the completion of home assignments had enough time to participate in different functions, time spent with their parents and friends. They also took part in many indoor and outdoor extracurricular activities. It is recommended that home assignments need to be planned clearly and accurately that can be more beneficial for students. Home assignments need to be arranged in the ways that they do not look like a punishment for the learners; they could take part in other additional activities. After the completion of home assignment the teachers should provide their comments and feedback to the learners.
Keyswords: Academic Activities, Elementary Level, Home Assignments, Students’ Social
Pages: 69-79
Article: 8 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)08
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)08
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Ideology Construction through Ideological Warfare: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Imran Khan and Narendra Modi’s Speeches at UNGA

Authors:
  1. Ammara Farhan
  2. Muhammad Shahbaz
  3. Raja Muhammad Ishtiaq Khan
Abstract: Political discourses can help in understanding political ideologies and agendas of people hidden beneath the surface level meaning of words. These ideologies, implicit and explicit, reveal political motives within contextual parameters and settings. This paper aims to identify the elements of commonality and difference in the speeches of Pakistani Prime Minister, Imran Khan and his Indian counterpart, Mr. Narendra Modi at the 75th session of United Nations General Assembly and analyze their respective political ideologies and foreign policy narratives as portrayed through their choices of words in these speeches. Application of critical discourse analysis through significant theoretical frameworks reveal that ideological underpinnings in both the speeches are distinct and common agenda is rare despite imminent conflicting issues awaiting resolution. Their speeches are loaded with particular type of words and agendas that suit the narrative of their particular regional and international discourse. Critical discourse analysis of these speeches demonstrates a lack of convergent ideas creating challenges in resolution of issues faced by these neighboring states.
Keyswords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Ideology, UNGA, Us Vs Them
Pages: 80-91
Article: 9 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)09
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)09
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An Evaluation of Urdu Translation of Hilton’s Goodbye, Mr. Chips by Parveen Ameen-ul-Haq

Authors:
  1. Uzma Nosheen
  2. Dr. Saqib Mahmood
  3. Javed Iqbal
Abstract: This study has evaluated Urdu translation of Hilton’s novel Goodbye, Mr. Chips. This novel is translated into Urdu by Parveen Ameen-ul-Haq in Pakistani context. Although the discipline of translation studies is flourishing in Pakistan, but relatively less attention is paid to the evaluation of translations of literary texts which are part of curriculum of Pakistani schools and colleges. Majority of the work deals with assessment of translations of the Holy Quran. The research is a step forward to address this issue. The study uses qualitative research paradigm and Nida’s theory of translation to investigate the selected text. In order to fulfill the aim of the study, twelve passages from eight different chapters of the novel were selected and analyzed in the light of Nida’s translation approach. The analysis reveals that the selected translation follows Nida’s approach of translation to a great extent. Although the translator seems to deviate from Nida’s theory of translation at some instances, but still she is successful in preservation of the original meanings in the translated text. ‘Additions’ and ‘omissions’ are made by the translator and domestication strategy is also used to make the translation acceptable for the target audience. Moreover, the translation is comprehensible for an average target reader and reproduce the effect of the original text. This study highlights not only the importance of translators’ training but also significance of the evaluation of translations of the texts which are part of curriculum of Pakistani schools and colleges.
Keyswords: Evaluation, Hilton’s Goodbye Mr. Chips, Urdu Translation
Pages: 49-58
Article: 10 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)10
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)10
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Personality Traits and Individual Effectiveness: Moderating Role of Electronic Medical Records

Authors:
  1. Dr. Faisal Shafique Butt
  2. Muhammad Iftikhar Ali
  3. Dr. Muhammad Waseem
Abstract: This research investigates the impact of five traits of personality on individual effectiveness in Pakistani medical industry. The study also examines the moderating role of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) among personality traits and individual effectiveness. Simple random and stratified techniques of sampling were utilized in the study, 413 respondents (doctors) were engaged as sample size. The different statistical methods like correlation, cronbach alpha, descriptive statistics, regression and moderated regression were employed in the study. The results indicated that personality traits (Agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness to experience) have an influence on individual effectiveness. Neuroticism has no effect on individual effectiveness. The results also supported the moderating relationship among personality traits (eliminating neuroticism) and individual effectiveness. The present study is an excellent contribution in the current literature on individual effectiveness.
Keyswords: Electronic Medical Records, Individual Effectiveness, Personality Traits
Pages: 107-122
Article: 11 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)11
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)11
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Fundamental Expediency of Islamic Injunctions: Analytical Analysis

Authors:
  1. Dr. Anwar ullah
  2. Bilal Hussain
  3. Dr. Imtiaz Ahmed
Abstract: Islam, like other religions, is not just the name of a few ideologies and rituals, but its teachings encompass all aspects of human life. That is why Western scholars who do not have deep insight into Islam analogize it to other religions. When these immature ideas of Western scholars reach our Muslim liberals in Pakistan, they rise against the Islamic scholars. They begin to say that these clerics have made Islam difficult. However, the Islamic scholars say that they are only interpreting the Qur'an and Sunnah. This research paper presents an analytical study of the injunctions of Islamic law in terms of how difficult they are for a human being. This research paper also explores the main purpose and interest of the universal and all-inclusive teachings of Islam. This research paper is helps researchers referring to the basic sources of Islamic sciences in determining ways to research various aspects of Shariah's objectives.
Keyswords: Ideologies, Immature Ideas, Objectives of Sharia’h, Religion
Pages: 123-134
Article: 12 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)12
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)12
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Behavioural Consequences of Police Officials during Investigation

Authors:
  1. Kashif Mahmood Saqib
  2. Syed Jafar Hussain Rizvi
  3. Abdul Rasheed
Abstract: Basic function of the state is to protect life, liberty, property of the people and to ensure a speedy justice. In Pakistan, the main components of criminal justice system are police, prosecution and judiciary. Unfortunately, the department of police in Pakistan is not producing requisite results. Incompetency of the police officers has become common tale of town. Usually, police officers in Pakistan do not follow the existing laws properly due to which upholding the rule of law remains a dream. It is witnessed since the birth of Pakistan that many efforts have been made for the overhauling of police department; however requisite goals could not be achieved. In 2002, Police Order was passed to cater the advance needs but the same was accepted half-heartedly. Requisite results cannot be achieved unless proper implementation of existing laws is ensured. In addition, the role of prosecution department should also be enhanced according to the modern world. This paper explains the causes and consequences of failure of police investigation officers. Furthermore, it is also discussed whether we need new laws with the existing laws.
Keyswords: Criminal Justice System, Criminal Procedure Code 1898, Investigation, Police, Police Order 2002
Pages: 135-141
Article: 13 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)13
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)13
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Print Media Framing of Coronavirus: Probing the Second Wave of COVID-19 in Leading Newspapers of Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Wajeeha Arif
  2. Hummera Hassan
  3. Abdul Rasheed
Abstract: The outbreak of novel coronavirus pandemic originated from the Wuhan city of China in January, 2020 raised many questions on the extent of health communication crisis. Within few weeks, a massive transmission of virus across the world drew attention of international media. Due to which almost every country around the globe got affected. In that situation, role of media becomes a challenge as majority of people are dependent on media to get information about the disease. Various media intellectuals often criticize media for framing, spreading misinformation and creating panic. Contrarily, many scholars have admired the role of media in disseminating relevant information and educating the public during health crisis. For this study, content analysis under umbrella of framing theory is done to examine the media coverage of the pandemic during second wave of coronavirus in Pakistan. To achieve the objective, two leading Urdu Dailies of Pakistan i.e., Jang and Nawa-i-Waqt are selected for the period of two months. This study adds a value to discourse of mass media practice and implication of different research paradigms in studying media frames critically during the time of crisis.
Keyswords: Covid-19 Pandemic, Media Framing, Misinformation, Role of Media, Second Wave
Pages: 142-152
Article: 14 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)14
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)14
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Nature Based Tourism in Kaghan Valley: Potential and Problems

Authors:
  1. Anas Mahmud Arif
  2. Owais Khan
  3. Naveed Usman
Abstract: Kaghan Valley is one of the most beautiful valleys of Pakistan due to its beautiful landscape, pleasant weather and climate, green and dense pine forests, unique flora and fauna, flowing river and streams, waterfalls, legendary lakes, whispering trees, patches of meadows with beautiful flowers and snow-covered peaks. Amidst the mountains, beautiful valleys with fruit orchards and traditional rural life with unique cultures and hospitable and loving local community attract the visitors making them happy with the nature and forget their worries and sorrows behind and become mentally relaxed. This research paper elaborates the natural resources of Kaghan valley like weather, water resources, peaks, forests, wildlife (flora and fauna), minerals and national parks etc. All the problems related to these natural resources are sorted out in this study and at the end their proper recommendations are suggested to manage them as sustainable tourism destinations.
Keyswords: Management, National Parks, Natural Resources, Problems, Sustainability
Pages: 153-166
Article: 15 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)15
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)15
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The Job Satisfaction as the Determinant of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Employees of Banks

Authors:
  1. Dr. Asma Seemi Malik
  2. Fareeha Anjum
  3. Amjad Mahmood
Abstract: The current study investigated the role of job satisfaction (JS) as a determinant for organizational commitment (OC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among male and female banks employees. This paper analyzed the difference between JS, OC, and OCB of the employees of both private and public banks in Lahore. The study sample comprised 300 participants, 150 male and 150 female employees of banks. A quantitative study was conducted to collect data. Three standardized questionnaires namely Job satisfaction scale with 18 items and the Organizational citizenship behavior scale with 20 items by Paul Spector (1985;1994) and Organizational Commitment by Allen and Meyer’s (1996) with 18 items were used to gather data. Employees were conveniently selected. The outcomes showed that JS, OC, OCB were closely linked among employees. If employees will be given good treatment and work appreciation at the job, then staff showed satisfaction and commitment towards their work.
Keyswords: Banks, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship, Organizational Commitment
Pages: 167-180
Article: 16 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)16
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)16
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Distortion of Cultural Anthropology in Haji’s The Writing on My Forehead: A Feminist Analysis

Authors:
  1. Nida Tabassum
  2. Muhammad Owais Ifzal
  3. Saba Rasheed
Abstract: The current research paper intends to explore the culturally built up stereotypes scrutinizing the role of women in Nafisa Haji’s The Writing on My Forehead (2009). It investigates the troubling state of Pakistani women as the victims of socio-cultural hegemony. Saira as a protagonist of the text reciprocates as an icon of protest against constructed cultural ideologies inclined towards gender dichotomous norms. Lila Abu Lughod in her essay Writing against Culture (2008) applies an operational technique upon culture distorting such falsely internalized cultural trends. She argues that culture appears as a major tool in the formation of self/other binary, serving as the foundation of male/female distinction thus carrying with it the baggage of hierarchy. Lila’s work not only out steps the horizons of cultural geography and monopoly but also interrogates further the roots of culture bringing into question, the reality of culture thus challenging the existing history of culture by writing against culture. Haji fabricates an intricate web representing the familial system rooted in cultural paradigms. By introducing the cultural calamities as Cultural Schizophrenia, the imbalance of women’s right in accordance to cultural constraints has been critically exposed.
Keyswords: Cultural Anthropology, Dichotomy, Hierarchy, Pakistani Women, Stereotype
Pages: 181-190
Article: 17 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)17
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)17
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Examining the Role of Grit in the Relationship between Servant Leadership and Work Performance: An Empirical Study of Higher Education Sector Of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Safi Ullah
  2. Nadir Khan
  3. Mir Sadaat Baloch
Abstract: Leadership has been the most prominent concept in the field of organizational behavior over the years, and continues to have a huge influence on the success of organizations. However, in recent past it was observed that traditional leadership approaches were failed to produce results in modem work settings, and that prompted researchers to see the effect of leadership approaches based on principles and ethics, such as servant leadership. Servant leadership has shown rather phenomenological effects in many work environments on the output of employees. Moreover, another variable – grit, which has emerged as a promising trait to have an influence on performance of individual- in organizational Behavior. Thus, this study examines the role of grit in the relationship between servant leadership and work performance. The present research was conducted on the teaching faculty and head of departments at the universities of Balochistan, Pakistan. The study findings showed a positive relationship between leadership of servants and job performance; moreover, grit has been shown to play a major mediating role between the two constructs. Furthermore, in this paper the relevance of the study to the field of knowledge and contribution to practitioners and potential research guidance is discussed.
Keyswords: Grit, Leadership, Servant, Work Performance
Pages: 191-201
Article: 18 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)18
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)18
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Digital Technologies’ (ICTs) Impact on University Students in Pakistan during Covid -19: Exploring the Variables of Social Isolation, Anxiety, Interaction and Addiction

Authors:
  1. Mudassar Hussain Shah
  2. Saima Kausar
  3. Maryam Waqas
Abstract: This study is design to understand the socio-psychological issues because of the consumption of ICTs of university students during the first phase of Covid-19 (March to August 2020).A structural questionnaire keeping in view of the variables of social Isolation, anxiety, Interaction and addiction is designed to acquire the data from students of two public sector universities i.e. University of Sargodha and Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan. The data is collected from 640 respondents through various whatsapp groups on online Google form. Findings of the study reveal that significant students spent their time on ICTs for prompt communication with family, peer and colleagues and real life friends. However, findings reflect significant adverse impacts of ICTs on youth in the form of depression, isolation and stress. The excessive use of ICTs is causing change in the social interaction pattern. However, findings also reflect that the impact is varied when there is change in demographics i.e. gender, education and location of the Institution. This study contributes in the literature of media dependency theory.
Keyswords: Addiction, Anxiety, Digital Technologies (ICTs), Interaction, Pakistan, Social Isolation, University Students
Pages: 202-212
Article: 19 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)19
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)19
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Pakistan’s development and International Investment Arbitration: A legal analysis of Bayindir Insaat, Pantechniki and Totto Case on Jurisdiction

Authors:
  1. Dr. Sardar M.A. Waqar Khan Arif
  2. Rashida Zahoor
Abstract: This work analyses the decision of International Centre for settlement of investment disputes (ICSID) on the issue of jurisdiction in relation to construction claims under International Investment Arbitration. It attempts to locate the place and significance of Bayindir Rule which highlighted the dangers of making claims under Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). In this context, the case of Bayindir v. Pakistan (Bayindir Case, 2009) is addressed. Further, it also analyses similar cases on the issue of jurisdiction and construction contracts, such as, Pantechniki (Pantechniki case, 2009)and Totto (Totto Case, 2012). It argues that there is difference between treaty and contract claims. The analysis of three cases reveals that redressal from ICSID in case of claiming through contract claims is condensed. In all three cases, contractors seek to get remedy under International Investment law (IIL) and approached ICSID, irrespective of their contractual arbitration agreement clauses under which the domestic law of the country will be applicable. It concludes that under IIL contractors faced difficulties while indicating that there claims are treaty claims and not contract claims. The uniqueness of the decisions of these three cases involves the scope of the ICSID’s jurisdiction. The methodology used in this article is qualitative.
Keyswords: Bayindir V. Pakistan, BITs, Construction Projects, Contract Claims, ICSID Jurisdiction, International Investment Law, MITs, Pantechniki Case, Toto Case, Treaty Claims
Pages: 213-224
Article: 20 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)20
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)20
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Prevention of Frauds in Public Sector Organizations: A Case of Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Syed Aamir Alam Rizvi
  2. Dr. Kazi Afaq Ahmed
Abstract: The fraud prevention is neither possible nor sustainable without understanding and eradicating the causes of the fraud, reform and align the Internal control mechanism using 21st century technology, public awareness movements promoting “Corruption as social evil” and corrupt people as “Public foes”. This study presents the global perspective on frauds based on quality research published in impact factor Journals only and local scenario based on expert reflections from audit, accounting, operations and management personnel being the stakeholders of the existing system who witnessed the phenomena inside out. The qualitative study was done using interpretivism approach, implying mixed method and conducting interviews, survey and focus group for data collection and analysis. The researcher has developed a Fraud Detection and Prevention mechanism that provides a comprehensive solution and road map to address the issue of Fraud in public sector organizations. This research is equally important for legislature, public sector management, accounts and audit professionals and can be used for capacity building of public sector employees and for developing policy framework.
Keyswords: Accountability, Causes, Detection, Fraud, Prevention, Public Sector
Pages: 225-244
Article: 21 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)21
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)21
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Exploration of Transformational Leadership Practices and its Effect on Performance of Private Colleges: Mediating Role of Teachers’ Retention

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Nadeem Anwar
  2. Riffat un Nisa Awan
  3. Abida Parveen
Abstract: This study was conducted to examine the effect of transformational leadership on performance of private group of colleges in Punjab and probes the role of teachers’ retention as mediator. Data by using questionnaire were collected from 311 teachers through convenience sampling. Three null hypotheses were formulated and with the help of Pearson Correlation, Regression analysis and Hayes (2013) mediation process model to analysis the direct and indirect effect of predictor variables on outcome variables were applied to test the null hypothesis. After data analysis hypotheses were rejected and alternative hypotheses were accepted. Therefore, the finding of the study was not surprising and it was revealed that transformational leadership has significant effect on performance of private colleges and teachers’ retention. Moreover, teachers’ retention was found a positive mediating role in the effect of transformational leadership on performance of private colleges. It was suggested that heads should practice the transformational leadership traits in order to increase teachers’ retention and performance of private colleges.
Keyswords: Performance of Private Colleges, Teachers’ Intention, Transformational Leadership
Pages: 245-256
Article: 22 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)22
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)22
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A Preliminary Insight into Social Work Field Training at University of Peshawar

Authors:
  1. Dr. Shakeel Ahmed
  2. Dr. Beenish Ijaz Butt
  3. Dr. Imran A. Sajid
Abstract: Social Work is an academic program and professional way of helping and enabling people who encounter psycho-social challenges in their life. It needs practical training in the form of fieldwork which is an indispensable activity of Social Work academic program across the globe. It is through fieldwork that the students internalize the practical concepts, values, skills and ethics of the professional social work practice for performing their role in social development of society after completing their social work education. For this purpose, a study was carried out to describe and explore the problems and issues encounter by the students in field placement during academic training of Social Work at University of Peshawar. A qualitative research designed was adopted in which Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted with the students of BS and MA program. It was found that there is a weak coordination between the Social Work Department and Social Welfare Agencies due to which students are incapable to broaden their abilities for coping future challenges of society after receiving degree.
Keyswords: Field Placement, Field Supervisor, Fieldwork, Social Work, University of Peshawar
Pages: 257-270
Article: 23 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)23
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)23
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Qur’anic and Confucian Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility: The New Imperative of Business Virtue

Authors:
  1. Mudassar Hussain Shah
  2. Saima Kausar
  3. Maryam Waqas
Abstract: Qur’an insists the high moral practices in business where entrepreneurs are responsible to perform all obligations to them that encompass the ethical, social, legal and economic responsibility. Similarly, Confucian social responsibility also focuses on the concept of human societies as family with the notions of ‘rites’ and ‘rituals’. The obligation of the family goes to those who belong to the class of ‘rites’ (entrepreneurs). This study explores the ethical practices of business within the broader frame of corporate social responsibility that elaborates Qur’anic and Confucian concept of business virtue. The definitions and earlier concepts of corporate social responsibility are not as deep rooted in culture and part of usual business practices as the Qur’anic and Confucian teachings that are in practice in all Islamic and Chinese, Japanese and Korean societies. However, businesses frequently aligned themselves into the approaches that have significant economic orientation of the market. This article argues on the significance of non-economic aspects encompass by the business organization toward ethical, social and legal aspects. The study asserts that in the societies where Qur’anic and Confucian teaching are considered as high moral standard, are ‘business virtue’ model that inline of corporate social responsibility that give emphasis on ethical and social aspects. However, economic aspects are market driven where ‘virtue’ is again in the central concept of entrepreneurship. This study discusses corporate social responsibility from theological and cultural perspective.
Keyswords: Qur’an, Confucius, Corporate Social Responsibility, Rites, Rituals, Business Virtue
Pages: 271-280
Article: 24 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)24
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)24
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Socio-Cultural and Financial Considerations of Maternal Mortality: An Evidences from District Bhakkar, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Uzma Irum
  2. Sadaf Mahmood
  3. Rabia Mahmood
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explore the socio-economic and cultural determinants that contributed to maternal mortality in rural areas of District Bhakkar, Pakistan. It was a systematic investigation and analysis of the literature concerning gender equity and socio-economic and cultural determinants to maternal health for females living in Pakistan. The qualitative research design was used and cases of twenty deceased women were investigated while the respondents were their close relatives, husbands, and concerned persons who were sharing their daily life routine. The purposive and snowball sampling techniques were employed for data collection and thematic analysis was used for analyzing this data. The results showed that most of the women were died due to the non-availability of nearby health care facilities, lack of appropriate knowledge regarding maternal health, visit traditional birth attendants, poor economic status, absence of transportation facilities at the time of complication, absence of trained doctors and Para-medical staff at the time of delivery, frequent pregnancies and less birth spacing. The government should provide sufficient resources including health, transport, and education in rural areas. The socio-economic and cultural relief for women is a sensitive issue especially in the decision of childbirth which should be addressed while creating awareness among society.
Keyswords: Financial Considerations, Maternal Mortality, Qualitative Research Design, Socio-Cultural
Pages: 281-291
Article: 25 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)25
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)25
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Practicing Error Analysis Techniques to Enhance Academic Essay Writing Skills

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Amjad
  2. Dr. Adnan Tahir
  3. Attiya Bano
Abstract: English language teachers are trying different teaching methods, approaches and techniques to improve language skills of ESL and EFL learners, and this study focused on practicing error analysis teaching techniques to enhance academic essay writing skills. This action research was conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of practicing error analysis techniques to enhance academic writing skills of intermediate level learners. A pre-test, a post-test and a feedback questionnaire were used to collect data, and it was analyzed by mixed methods. The students’ results of tests, their performance during practice activities in the class and responses to the feedback questionnaire demonstrated that error analysis teaching techniques were proved very effective and successful in improving academic essay writing. Learners’ experience in this class improved their knowledge, understanding and performance in error analysis and academic writing as well as increased their level of motivation and self-confidence. That was why, the learners performed well during the practice error analysis activities in the class and in the final test. All these results and responses showed better learning outcomes through practicing error analysis teaching techniques to enhance academic essay writing of the learners at intermediate level
Keyswords: Academic Essay Writing Skills, Error Analysis, Teaching Techniques
Pages: 292-305
Article: 26 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)26
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)26
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Development of Scale to Measure Teachers’ Creativity

Authors:
  1. Itrat Sheikh
  2. Dr. Rizwan Akram Rana
Abstract: This article is based the effect of Leader member exchange theory on teachers’ job performance and teachers’ creativity. In this research leader-member exchange theory was an independent variable of the study and teachers’ creativity and job performance were the dependent variables. One of the aims was to develop a tool to measure teachers’ creativity. Literature about creativity was thoroughly reviewed. Initially 50 items were constructed. Tool was sent to 05 subject experts for their opinion. After expert opinion 30 items were retained and pilot testing was conducted to ensure the reliability of the instrument. 350 questionnaires were sent to the university teachers and 289 were used for final analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was run and 15 items were selected for the final instrument. It is therefore recommended that locally developed instrument.
Keyswords: Creativity, Development of Scale, Teacher’s Creativity
Pages: 306-319
Article: 27 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)27
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)27
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Analysis of B. Ed (Hons.) Curriculum with Reference to Outcome Based Education and National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Abida Parveen
  2. Mushtaq Ahmad
  3. Muhammad Sarwar
Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate the existing curriculum with reference to outcome based teacher education and National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan. Qualitative methodology was used and a semi-structured interview was developed by following CIPP model. Interview was conducted with 10 Head of the Education Departments of the Universities where B. Ed (Hons.) program was running. The data analysis revealed that existing curriculum is neither aligned with National Professional Standards for Teachers nor with the indicators of outcome based education. There is need to improve the existing curriculum with respect to National Professional Standards for Teachers and outcome based indicators. It is recommended that HEC may constitute a committee of stake holders to completely revise the curriculum and courses of teacher education programs and develop and align the PLOs & CLOs with NPSTs to make it outcome based.
Keyswords: Course Learning Outcomes, Curriculum, Outcome Based Education, Prospective Teachers
Pages: 320-333
Article: 28 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)28
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)28
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The Influence of Organizational Assimilation on Trust and Commitment with the Mediating Role of Co-creation of Value in HEIs

Authors:
  1. Dr. Qaiser Rashid Janjua
  2. Dr. Muhammad Awais Mehmood
  3. Dr. Muhammad Akram
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to assess the influence of organizational assimilation on co-creation of value, trust and commitment of the university students. It also investigates the mediating role of co-creation of value between organization assimilation, trust and commitment. Data were gathered from 516 students from public and private universities under general category located in the capital city of Islamabad through survey method. Through the pooled confirmatory factor analysis using the software AMOS 20, it was found that organizational assimilation is a significant predictor of co-creation of value, trust and commitment. Co-creation of value was also found to significantly affect trust and commitment and found partially mediating between organizational assimilation, trust and commitment respectively. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed including limitations and recommendations for future research. This study inter relates trans-disciplinary perspectives of organizational socialization and consumer cognitive psychology, and contributes significantly towards the body of knowledge in the field of organizational studies.
Keyswords: Co-creation of Value, Commitment, HEIs. Organizational Assimilation, Trust
Pages: 334-352
Article: 29 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)29
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)29
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Sustainable Practices or Cost Efficiency: A Case Study of Selected Hotels in District Swat

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Imad Khan
  2. Javed Iqbal
  3. Dilawar Said
Abstract: This study examines the green practices in the hotels of district swat. The data is analyzed through descriptive statistics. The data is collected from selected hotels using simple random sampling technique. The results indicate that majority of the hotels do not intend to bring any sustainable practices rather their primary aim is to reduce the cost and generate more profits. While doing so, most of the hotels used solar system and adopt other energy control measures which can be termed as a blessing in disguise. Most of the hotels lack environmental friendly facilities such as electric card control system, automatic lighting in corridor facility, glass and paper recycling. Besides other environmental friendly practices , the hotels need take prior steps to reduce the consumption of water and develop waste disposal mechanism.
Keyswords: Cost Efficiency, Hotel Industry, Sustainable Practices
Pages: 353-361
Article: 30 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)30
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)30
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Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions of their Head Teachers Instructional Leadership and its Effect on Teachers’ Professional development in Karachi Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Nazir Ahmad
  2. Zahid Ali
  3. Dr. Rozina Sewani
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to ascertain secondary school teachers perceptions of their head teacher instruction leadership and its effect on their professional development because Lack of instructional leadership in secondary schools in Karachi Pakistan has been an attentive issue as it has remained a root cause of ineffective teaching practices in the schools, ultimately caused students’ low academic performance and poor quality of education. A quantitative research design with a survey technique was used to investigate teachers' perceptions of secondary school head teachers' instructional leadership and its effect on teacher professional development. Participants were chosen through a stratified random sampling technique, and data were collected from 374 secondary school teachers using the Instructional leadership (ILQ). Descriptive analysis was done through SPSS 22 and the Smart PLS was used for calculations, reliability, validity and hypothesis testing of the measurement and structural models. The findings of the current study revealed that secondary school teachers’ perceptions about their head teachers’ instructional leadership behaviours, as a curriculum implementer, monitoring student progress and protecting their instructional time in the classroom have a significant and positive effect on teacher professional development. It is suggested that secondary school principals of Karachi, Pakistan should adopt and incorporate instructional leadership behaviours like; curriculum implementer, monitoring students’ progress and protecting their instructional time to improve secondary school teachers’ professional development.
Keyswords: Instructional Leadership, Professional Development, Teachers Perceptions
Pages: 362-377
Article: 31 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)31
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)31
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Tourists’ Willingness to Pay for Green Attributes in the Hotel Industry of KP

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Imad Khan
  2. Javed Iqbal
  3. Zahoor Ul Haq
Abstract: This study is based on the tourists’ willingness to pay for green attributes in the hotel industry of KP. A survey was conducted through questionnaire wherein contingent valuation method was adopted. The findings of the survey revealed that customers are willing to pay for provision of green practices in hotels. Their mean willingness to pay is Rs.1519.6 which is approximately US$ 9.93. The willingness to pay for sustainable practices depends upon the education of the respondents, their income level, length of stay in a hotel and rent per night. The regression analysis is done through multiple regression models. In addition, to model the number of visits a tourist has to make within a year is done with the help of Poisson regression model. The set of explanatory variables include gender, education levels, rent per night paid by a tourist, maximum willingness to pay for green attributes in a hotel, age of the respondent, status of the respondent, number of days a tourist is willing to stay in a hotel, visitor status and monthly income of the respondent. The results show that except gender and visitor status rest of the variables bears a significant positive relationship with the number of visits a customer has to make within a year.
Keyswords: Hotel Industry, Sustainable Practices, Willingness to Pay
Pages: 378-390
Article: 32 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)32
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)32
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Legal Assessment of DNA Evidence in Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Hassan Zia
  2. Muhammad Sajid Akhtar
  3. Huma Hassan
Abstract: This paper provides the perspective of the Supreme Court to consider DNA as valuable evidence. Different cases have been discussed in the paper to provide all encompassing viewpoint. On one hand it is seen that Supreme Court declared DNA evidence as a gold standard to establish the identity of an accused and acknowledged the significant stature of technological and scientific tools, devices and techniques that help provide objective, credible and reliable evidences relating to court cases for reaching to judicious decisions. At the same time Article 14 of the constitution of Pakistan 1973 ensures that the evidence should be scrutinized keeping in mind the self-respect of every individual. On the other hand in certain cases the court rejected the DNA evidence owing to its’ erroneous handling. Therefore, Supreme Court called for the courts to be open to scientific developments leading to advancements in forensic science but also provided stipulated guidelines for the health and police department to follow. DNA evidence is valuable only if it is appropriately recognized, documented, accumulated and stored. For this purpose researchers provide certain recommendations in the conclusion section.
Keyswords: DNA, Physical Evidence, Rape, Semen, Victim
Pages: 391-400
Article: 33 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)33
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)33
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Moderating role of Family involvement in Relationship between Corporate Performance and CEO’s turnover: Evidence from Chinese Firms

Authors:
  1. Noheed Khan
  2. Waseem ullah
  3. Khubaib Shahzad
Abstract: Prior studies regarding the corporate performance and CEO’s turnover produce inconclusive results. Using a comprehensive database of Chinese firms, this paper proposes a newly formulated conceptual framework that an introduction of interaction term of family involvement in the relationship between corporate performance and CEO’s turnover. Our data sample is composed of 1537 listed non-financial companies for the period 2006 to 2016. We use fixed effect model to analyze the data. The findings show that CEO turnover has a significant negative impact on corporate performance. Furthermore, the family involvement plays crucial moderating role in the relationship between corporate performance and CEO’s turnover. The robust and additional analyses validate the findings of the study.
Keyswords: CEO’s turnover, Chinese Firms, Corporate Performance, Family involvement
Pages: 401-414
Article: 34 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)34
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)34
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A Comparative Analysis of Character Strength Among University and Madrassa Students

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Shahzad Ashfaq
  2. Prof Dr. Muhammad Sarwar
  3. Dr. Zunaira Fatima Syeda
Abstract: This study analyses the character strength among students at university, and the madrassa system in Punjab, Pakistan. It provides a comparison of the character strength of university and madrassa students. This study used the convergent mixed-method research design. The sample of the study was 896 respondents selected through multi-stage sampling technique. This sample included 640 students (320 from universities and 320 from madrassas) and 256 teachers (128 from universities and 128 from madrassas). Two research tools were used to collect information from the respondents. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures i.e. mean values and Independent Samples Test (t-test). The findings of the study revealed that both the university and madrassa students maintain a high level of character strength. The comparison of students on the basis of their institutions revealed that there was a significant difference among them with reference to their character strength. It also showed that the university students have distinction over madrassa students with respect to their character strength. The study recommended large-scale comprehensive research covering both public and private universities and madrassas across the province of Punjab.
Keyswords: Character Strength, Comparative Analysis, Madrassa Students, Pakistan Punjab, University Student
Pages: 414-425
Article: 35 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)35
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)35
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Relationship between College Students’ Sense of Belonging and Academic Resilience

Authors:
  1. Najam ul Hasan
  2. Mushtaque Ali Channa
Abstract: This study intended to investigate the relationship between college students' sense of belonging and academic resilience. It aims to provide good research materials for contemporary college students in their academic development, to provide reference for further research, and to provide a basis for solving problems such as college students in their academic difficulties. 303 participants returned the questionnaires fully completed on all the scales and were assessed and analyzed. The findings suggest that there are differences in college students' sense of belonging, and academic resilience on different demographic variables, such as gender, grade, only child among the major attributes. College students' sense of belonging was positively correlated with academic resilience. Furthermore, College students' academic resilience has a positive predictive effect on college students' sense of. There are differences in school belonging and academic resilience among college students with different demographic variables. There are significant gender differences in college students' academic resilience; There are significant differences in school sense of belonging and academic resilience.
Keyswords: Academic Resilience, College Students, Sense of Belonging
Pages: 426-439
Article: 36 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)36
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)36
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Urban Expansion and Remote Sensing Techniques: An Assessment of Multan City during 2008-2018

Authors:
  1. Basit Nadeem
  2. Qurt ul Ain
  3. Neelma Hassan
Abstract: This paper presents an incorporated study of urban growth and expansion of Multan City, by using remote sensing techniques, and discussed the temporal and spatial characteristics of urban expansion and land use land cover change from 2008 to 2018. Multan, city of Pakistan, has been facing rapid urban evolution the last eras. The progress of socio-economic development and urban growth has concluded in the quick change of urbanization. Temporally, urban expansion shows rapid and sluggish growth stages, with the high-speed growth shifting to all the directions. The result shows the detection of this decay from 2008 to 2018 of Multan city. In 2008 built up area covered 47.4 sq km that increased rapidly till 2018 that is expanding up to 70.3 km. A key effect of this urbanization is actually detected in the practice of a rise of growth of population. Due to urban expansion, Multan has moved out under extensive Land use changes the last decades. Being the agricultural landscape over all, instead of progress in agricultural activities, the district of Multan has shown a decrease in the agricultural land. Loss of agricultural land has resulted into the increase of urban land area. In other words the inhabited area has been increased at the cost of decrease of food required for the growing population. The major factors influencing urban expansion and land use/cover change are also discussed. In general, the traffic conditions, population, industrialization, and policy are the major factors that influenced the urban expansion.
Keyswords: Change Detection, Population Growth, Remote Sensing, Urban Expansion
Pages: 440-450
Article: 37 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)37
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)37
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Climate Change Vulnerabilities in South Asia: Prospects of Water and Food Security

Authors:
  1. Prof. Dr. Iram Khalid
  2. Tooba Ahmad
Abstract: Climate change is an emerging battlefield for international security. It has not just affected national security, rather endangered collective security of all states. It is a ‘threat multiplier’ which, after interacting with existing pressures, further complicates the problem. The nexus of climate-water-food security has unique importance in the most vulnerable South Asian region having approximately one fourth of the world population. The inappropriate handling of water and food security has become further sensitive due to continuous changes in the climate of the region. The long standing trans-boundary water conflicts and food deficiencies in the regions are further aggravated by rapid changes in industrialization, urbanization and economic growth. A qualitative approach to research is adopted in this study to assess the impact of climate change on water and food security in South Asia. Reports of different international, regional and national organizations have been used for analysis. The projections show that approximately 75% of the Himalayan glaciers are on retreat and will melt down by 2035. Thus, nexus of food insecurity and the non-availability of clean water will be explosive for under-developed and developing states in the region. The scarcity of resources demands adoption of integrated solutions for optimal utilization of available resources. The analysis of data shows that despite the understanding of complementary nature of water and food security, the governments in South Asia have tried to deal with these challenges in isolation and failed to address the problems. Therefore, besides strengthening the capacity of regional governments, regional cooperation is required to take initiatives to secure and improve water and food supplies and to mitigate the threats posed by climate change.
Keyswords: Climate Change, Food Security, International Security, Nexus of Climate-Water-Food, South Asia, Threat Multiplier, Water Security
Pages: 451-463
Article: 38 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)38
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)38
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The Impact of Teacher Feedback on Students’ Academic Performance: A Mediating Role of Self-efficacy

Authors:
  1. Manzoor Ahmed
  2. Dr. Martin Thomas
  3. Rimesha Farooq
Abstract: A teacher’s constructive, evaluative and corrective feedback is generally perceived as an essential ingredient for the students’ academic performance. It is also believed that self-efficacy contributes as a mediator between a teacher’s feedback and students’ academic performance. The present study was conducted to find the impact of the teachers’ constructive, corrective, and evaluative feedback on students’ academic performance with self-efficacy as a mediator. By utilizing the stratified sampling technique, data was gathered through a structured questionnaire from 336 sample cases of the Bachelor of Science (BS) and the Bachelor of Education, Honors (B. Ed, Hons) batches of the higher education institutes in Turbat, Pakistan. The findings revealed that the teachers’ constructive, corrective, and evaluative feedback have significant effect on students’ academic performance. Furthermore, the results also indicate that students’ self-efficacy has a significant mediating effect between the teachers’ constructive and evaluative feedback and students’ academic performance.
Keyswords: Academic Performance, Self-Efficacy, Teacher Constructive Feedback, Teacher Corrective Feedback, Teacher Evaluative Feedback
Pages: 464-480
Article: 39 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)39
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)39
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Influence of Cultural Barriers, Societal Issues and Environmental Restriction on Career of Female Journalist: A Review of Feminist Economy of Female Journalists of Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Farrah Zamir
  2. Professor Dr. Shafiq Jullandhry
Abstract: The current study has highlighted the impediments faced by women journalists, which are addressed and will aid in the creation of an inclusive and diverse media industry in a developing country like Pakistan. Although female journalists in Pakistan have shown excellent performance in journalism over the recent years, they are still facing challenges that are hindering them from doing their best. In the current study, the effect of cultural, societal and environmental barriers on the career of female journalists have been highlighted. The methodology chosen for the current study is secondary qualitative. The qualitative approach has been selected since it helps in analysing the behaviours, thoughts, and experiences of individuals in depth. This is secondary research as the data for the current study has been gathered from academic papers and newspapers. The current study concluded that women in the field of journalism are subjected to unjust treatment. The huge disparity between the pay of male and female journalists for similar roles have been discovered. Women are facing discrimination based on their gender at the workplace.
Keyswords: Challenges, Cultural Barriers, Environmental Restrictions, Female Career, Female Journalists, Feminist Economy, Pakistan, Social Issues
Pages: 481-490
Article: 40 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)40
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)40
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Alienation and Self-Alienation

Authors:
  1. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan
Abstract: Modernity has though opened new vistas of existence, yet it has brought in its wake trails of woes and worries, pains and pangs, which have got worldwide attention with emergence of particular terminologies like alienation and self-alienation. Both these terms might have existed in the annals of history, named and unnamed, but a particular signification has made them a topic of debate. Two world wars, the rise of globalization and one’s settlement in a war torn and economically growing world has introduced human beings to external as well as internal incompatibility amidst growing challenges of life. Human beings it appears are standing on a crossroad and are confronted with Shakespearean idea of “to be or not to be.” This research therefore tries to investigate as to what is alienation and what is self-alienation. Alienation and self-alienation appear to be products of modernity as modern human being, an alien, personally or impersonally, at home or on foreign lands, in loneliness or gatherings, seems in a state of great perplexity, confusion, chaos, uncertainty, helplessness and hopelessness. The discussion shows that alienation is objective whereas self-alienation is a subjective phenomenon.
Keyswords: Alienation, Freedom, Othering, Retreatism, Self-Alienation
Pages: 491-499
Article: 41 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)41
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)41
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Migration, Alienation and Literature

Authors:
  1. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan
Abstract: Ever since the world turning into a global village, it has witnessed large scale mobilization and movement towards centers of powerful economic zones. The dominant idea behind migration seems to be economic prosperity and happiness not only of migrants but also their dependents. There may also be other reasons associated with migration. So, migration along with its advantages and disadvantages has emerged as a topic of discussion in different fields of scholarship. Literature too has been documenting such themes. This research, touching upon selective literary productions from Britain, America, India, Pakistan and postcolonial literary perspectives, explores problems faced by immigrants. It is noticed that immigrants are treated as non-humans and immobile which exposes the superficiality of human relationships. This superficiality and biasness results in multiple and fragmented narratives and alienation. The causes of alienation may be numerous, but it has been on the rise chiefly amongst migrants belonging to third world countries. Its presence has also been seen in developed countries like Britain and America. It is, therefore, observed that migration and alienation go side by side.
Keyswords: Alienation, Immigrants, Migration, Othering, Postcolonial Literature
Pages: 500-508
Article: 42 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)42
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)42
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Pakistan’s Decision to Join US War on Terror and Repercussion for Pakistan

Authors:
  1. Muhammad Abid Nazir
  2. Dr. Gulshan Majeed
Abstract: Dating back to 2001, soon after assuming power, Musharraf regime faced with the question regarding Pakistan’s stance on War on Terror (WOT). History dictates that Musharraf’s decision of presenting Pakistan as a front-line state in the US-sponsored War on Terror (WOT) is the most controversial decision of his times. Various factors coerced Musharraf to offer un-stinted assistance to the US. The empirical and descriptive analysis built on Musharraf's decision to become a part of the US-launched global mission against terrorism, which mainly targeted Al-Qaeda based in Afghanistan, demonstrates two contrasting opinions. One of the arguments is floated by government exponents who believe that the decision was a rational response to the changing global scenario. Whereas, the other segment declares that the decision was entirely taken to cater to personal interests and was not at all in the favor of the nation. However, this decision impacted Pakistan in the longer run. This articles attempts to critically analyse Pakistan’s decision and thoroughly discuss the consequences faced. The study aimed to understand the decision made by Pakitan to join war on terror. Its key objective is to thoroughly examine the consequences faced by Pakistan in the aftermath of joining the WOT. The study adopted qualitative approach (i.e. using existing body of literature-books, newspaper, journal articles to draw conclusion). Findings reveal that Pakistan faced economic, social, as well as psychological consequences for joining the US-led war on terror. Moreover, country’s image on global level was also severely tarnished.
Keyswords: Pakistan, Repercussions, US-led, WOT
Pages: 509-519
Article: 43 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)43
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)43
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War of Narrative on Kashmir: Changing Dynamics of India-Pakistan Traditional Rivalry

Authors:
  1. Nadia Zaheer
  2. Dr. Rehana Saeed Hashmi
Abstract: The Kashmir dispute is a multifaceted issue between Pakistan and India that exists as an insurmountable obstacle to contemporary techniques and approaches to conflict resolution in South Asia. For decades, the issue has remained one of the key irritant factors in their bilateral relationship while constantly putting peace at stake in South Asia. However, after achieving the evidence of nuclear capability in 1998 by both states, comparatively fewer instances are observed of the prospects of a full-fledged war between them on the bases of their conflicting claims over the Kashmir region. In the backdrop of a strategic partnership with the US and aspiration of an assumed global role, India seems no more interested to keep its foreign policy significantly Pakistan-centric. This led to a significant shift in the means and ways by which India projected her stance on the Kashmir dispute. The enhanced emphasis on means and ways to contest a war of narrative over Kashmir rather than waging a ground battle is comprised of running a relentless machine of disinformation for manufacturing truth.
Keyswords: India, Kashmir Dispute, Narrative, Pakistan, South Asia
Pages: 520-531
Article: 44 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)44
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)44
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Religious Symbolism in Adelaide Anne Procter’s Legends and Lyrics

Authors:
  1. Dr. Muhammad Ajmal Khan
  2. Hunny Manzoor
  3. Dr. Saeed Ur Rehman
Abstract: The present study investigates the religious symbolism in Legends and Lyrics by Adelaide Anne Procter, who represents Victorian feminine religious sensibility. In her poetry, we often find unique symbols with religious undertones entailing more profound spiritual implications. Symbols are used to represent the invisible and intangible facts that would otherwise remain only abstractions. When religious symbols are employed in an author’s works, notably a poet, there is a clear indication that the writer is trying to answer questions of spiritual nature, divinity, and the beatific vision. The study helps to answer why symbols are so fundamental in religious literature, mainly that which deals with the esoteric side of dogma, especially in the Victorian era. It has been found that the overall imagery used in Procter’s poetry is universal in nature but with clear biblical connotations.
Keyswords: Adelaide Anne, Procter, Feminine Religious Sensibility, Religious Symbolism, Victorian Poetry
Pages: 532-542
Article: 45 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)45
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)45
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Geopolitics of Climate Change: US and China are Reciprocal Contenders

Authors:
  1. Sonia Ashraf
Abstract: The United States and China are anticipated to have major impacts on global temperature change. The United States was the nation that transmits the most greenhouse gases throughout the previous century. Since that time, the primary component of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, has lingered in the atmosphere for about 100 years. This article illustrates how climate change is a geopolitical issue. It demonstrates how lowering greenhouse gas emissions affect spatial politics. Without consideration of deeper geopolitical dynamics in the larger international system, it is impossible to comprehend the complicated politics of climate change. The resurgence of "great-power politics" is between China and the US as well as the two countries' inability to socialize with one another and integrate into international governance frameworks. An effective global climate regime can only be established through cooperation between the USA and China. Recent US-China climate change relations reveal a divergent trend of constructive bilateral cooperation and combative interactions in multilateral climate negotiation. The overwhelming size and impending climate change deadline would not be possible without the state's heavy lifting and capacity to influence behavior on a national scale. Climate mitigation and adaptation are impractical without the state's heavy lifting and its capacity as a national body to inspire behavioral change. Hence, it concludes that currently, both divisive actors are more focused on geopolitical competition rather than combating with climate change crisis. The paper goes on to say that if these reasons are essentially true, the field of international relations has to concentrate considerably more on the climate crisis and reconnect with its state-related traditions of thought.
Keyswords: 543-550
Pages: China, Climate Change, Geopolitics, Strategic Riva
Article: 46 , Volume 2 , Issue 3
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)46
DOI Link: http://doi.org/10.47205/jdss.2021(2-III)46
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