ISSN(Print): 2709-6254 | ISSN(Online) : 2709-6262 | ISSN-L : 2709-6254

(2021) Volume 2, Issue 4

Cultural Implications of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC

  1. Dr. Unsa Jamshed
  2. Amar Jahangir
  3. Anbrin Khawaja
Abstract: This study is an attempt to highlight the cultural implication of CPEC on Pak-China relations, how it will align two nations culturally, and what steps were taken by the governments of two states to bring the people closer. After the establishment of diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China, the cultural aspect of relations between the two states also moved forward. The flow of cultural delegations intensified after the 2010, because this year was celebrated as the ‘Pak-China Friendship Year’. This dimension of relations further cemented between the two states with the signing of CPEC in April 2015. CPEC will not only bring economic prosperity in Pakistan but it will also bring two states culturally closer. The roads and other communication link under this project will become source of cultural flow between the two states.
Keyswords: China, CPEC, Culture, Exhibitions
Pages: 01-11
Article: 1 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)01
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Political Persona on Twittersphere: Comparing the Stardom of Prime Minister(s) of Pakistan, UK and India

  1. Maryam Waqas
  2. Mudassar Hussain Shah
  3. Saima Kausar
Abstract: Political setup demands to use Twittersphere for preserving its reputation because of significant twitter audience, which follows celebrities and political figures. In this perspective, political figures frequently use twitter to highlight their political as well as personal lives worldwide. However, political figures take the stardom status among the twitter audience that follow, retweet and comment by their fans. The purpose of this study is, to analyze what kind of language, level of interest is made by political figures while communicating via twitter, text, phrases and languages used by political figures, and do their tweets contribute in their reputation. The qualitative content analysis is used for evaluation of the interests shared by PM Imran Khan, PM Boris John Son and PM Narendra Modi with the key words of tweets. A well-established coding sheet is developed for the analysis of text, phrases and words in the frames of negative, positive and neutral from March 2020 to May 2020. The results are demonstrating on the basis of content shared by Prime Ministers of three countries i.e., From Pakistan, Imran Khan, United Kingdom, Johnson Boris and India, Narendra Modi on twitter. The findings also reveal that varied issues discussed in tweets, significantly positive and neutral words are selected by these political figures. PM Imran tweeted more negative tweets than PM Boris Johnson and PM Narendra Modi. However, PM Boris Johnson and PM Narendra Modi make significant positive and neutral tweets. It is observed that political figures are conscious about their personal reputation while tweeting. It also revealed that the issues and tweets shared by these leaders contribute to their personal reputation.
Keyswords: Imran Khan, Johnson Boris, Narendra Modi, Political Persona, Stardom, Twittersphere
Pages: 12-23
Article: 2 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)02
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An Empirical Relationship between Government Size and Economic Growth of Pakistan in the Presence of Different Budget Uncertainty Measures

  1. Sunila Jabeen
  2. Dr. Wasim Shahid Malik
Abstract: Relationship between government size and economic growth has always been a debated issue all over the world since the formative work of Barro (1990). However, this relationship becomes more questionable when policy uncertainty is added in it. Hence, this paper presents evidence on the effect of government size on economic growth in the presence of budget uncertainty measured through three different approaches. Rather than relying on the traditional and complicated measures of uncertainty, a new method of measuring uncertainty based on government budget revisions of total spending is introduced and compared with the other competing approaches. Using time series annual data from 1973-2018, the short run and long run coefficients from Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) framework validate the negative effect of budget uncertainty and government size on economic growth of Pakistan regardless of the uncertainty measure used. Therefore, to attain the long run economic growth, along with the control on the share of government spending in total GDP, government should keep the revisions in the budget as close to the initial announcements as it can so that uncertainty can be reduced. Further, the uncertainty in fiscal spending calculated through the deviation method raises a big question on the credibility of fiscal policy in Pakistan. Higher will be the deviation higher will be the uncertainty and lower the fiscal policy credibility hence making fiscal policy less effective in the long run.
Keyswords: Budget Uncertainty, Economic Growth, Government Size, Policy Credibility
Pages: 24-38
Article: 3 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)03
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Despair in The Alchemist by Ben Jonson

  1. Dr. Fatima Syeda
  2. Dr. Faiza Zaheer
  3. Numrah Mehmood
Abstract: This research aims to challenge the assumption that The Alchemist by Ben Jonson is one of the greatest examples of the “explicit mirth and laughter” (Veneables 86). The paper argues that The Alchemist is a cynical and despairing play created in an atmosphere not suitable for a comedy. This is a qualitative study of the text and aims at an analysis of the theme, situations, characters, language, and the mood of the play to determine that Jonson is unable to retain the comic spirit in The Alchemist and in an attempt to “better men” (Prologue. 12) he becomes more satirical and less humorous or comic. This research is important for it contends that the play, termed as a comedy, may be read as a bitter satire on the cynical, stinky, and despairing world of the Elizabethan times.
Keyswords: Comedy, Despair, Reformation
Pages: 39-47
Article: 4 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)04
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Analysis of Principles of Coordinated Border Management (CBM) in articulation of War-Control Strategies: An Account of Implementation Range on Pakistan and Afghanistan

  1. Dr. Sehrish Qayyum
  2. Dr. Umbreen Javaid
Abstract: Currently, Border Management is crucial issue not only for Pakistan but for the entire world due to increased technological developments and security circumstances. Pakistan and Afghanistan being immediate states have inter-connected future with socio-economic and security prospects. Principles of Coordinated Border Management (CBM) approach have been extracted on the basis of in-depth interviews with security agencies and policymakers to understand the real time needs. The current research employs mixed method approach. Process Tracing is employed in this research to comprehend the causal mechanism behind the contemporary issue of border management system. A detailed statistical analysis of prospect outcomes has been given to validate the implication of CBM. Implication range of CBM has been discussed with positive and probably negative impacts due to its wide range of significance. This research gives an analysis of feasibility support to exercise CBM in best interest of the state and secure future of the region.
Keyswords: Afghanistan, Coordinated Border Management, Fencing, Pakistan, Security
Pages: 48-62
Article: 5 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)05
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The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) vs. Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (the Quad): A Perspective of a Game Theory

  1. Muhammad Atif
  2. Prof. Dr. Muqarrab Akbar
Abstract: Containment is the central part of the U.S.'s foreign policy during the cold war. With the application of containment Policy, the U.S. achieved much success in international politics. Over time China has become more powerful and sees great power in international politics. China wants to expand and launched the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). The primary purpose of The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is to achieve support from regional countries and save their interests from the U.S. In 2017, the American administration launched its Containment policy through Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (the Quad) to keep their interest from China. The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) is comprising of Australia, the United States, Japan, and India. This Study is based on Qualitative research with theoretical application of Game theory. This research investigates both plans of China (BRI) and the U.S. (the Quad) through a Game Theory. In this study, China and the U.S. both like to act as gamers in international politics. This study recommends that Game theory can predict all developments in the long term.
Keyswords: Containment, Expansionism, Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
Pages: 63-75
Article: 6 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)06
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Narendra Modi a Machiavellian Prince: An Appraisal

  1. Dr. Imran Khan
  2. Dr. Karim Haider Syed
  3. Muhammad Yousaf
Abstract: The comparison of Narendra Modi and Machiavellian Prince is very important as policies of Modi are creating problems within India and beyond the borders. The Prince is the book of Niccolo Machiavelli a great philosopher of his time. If Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi qualifies as a Prince of Machiavelli is a very important question. This is answered in the light of his policies and strategies to become the undisputed political leader of India. Much of the Machiavellian Prince deals with the problem of how a layman can raise himself from abject and obscure origins to such a position that Narendra Modi has been holding in India since 2014. The basic theme of this article is revolving around the question that is following: Can Modi’s success be attributed to techniques of The Prince in important respects? This article analyzed Narendra Modi's policies and strategies to develop an analogy between Machiavellian Prince and Modi in terms of characteristics and political strategies. This research work examines, how Narendra Modi became the strongest person in India.
Keyswords: Comparison, India, Machiavelli, Modus Operandi, Narendra Modi
Pages: 76-84
Article: 7 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)07
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Analyzing Beckett's Waiting for Godot as a Political Comedy

  1. Muhammad Umer Azim
  2. Dr. Muhammad Saleem
  3. Nargis Saleem
Abstract: This study was devised to analyze Samuel Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot in the light of Jean-Francois Lyotard’s theory of postmodernism given in his book The Postmodern Condition (1984). This Lyotardian paradigm extends a subversive challenge to all the grand narratives that have been enjoying the status of an enviable complete code of life in the world for a long time. Even a cursory scan over the play under analysis creates a strong feel that Beckett very smartly, comprehensively and successfully questioned the relevance of the totalizing metanarratives to the present times. Being an imaginative writer, he was well aware of the fact that ridicule is a much more useful weapon than satire in the context of political literature. There are so many foundationalist ideologies that he ridicules in his dramatic writing. Christianity as a religion is well exposed; the gravity of philosophy is devalued; the traditional luxury that the humans get from the art of poetry is ruptured and the great ideals of struggle are punctured. He achieves his artistic and ideologically evolved authorial intentions with a ringing success. It is interesting to note that he maintains a healthy balance between art and message.
Keyswords: Beckett, Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition, Waiting for Godot
Pages: 85-94
Article: 8 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)08
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Effect of Parenting Styles on Students’ Academic Achievement at Elementary Level

  1. Hafsa Noreen
  2. Mushtaq Ahmad
  3. Uzma Shahzadi
Abstract: The study intended to find out the effect of parenting styles on students’ academic achievement. Current study was quantitative in nature. All elementary level enrolled students at government schools in the province of the Punjab made the population of the study. Multistage sampling was used to select the sample from four districts of one division (Sargodha) of the Punjab province i.e., Sargodha. A sample size i.e., n=960; students and their parents were participated in this study. Research scales i.e. Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) was adapted to analyze and measure parents’ parenting styles and an achievement test was developed to measure the academic achievement of the elementary students. After pilot testing, reliability coefficient Cronbach Alpha values for PSDQ and achievement test were 0.67 and 0.71 Data was collected and analyzed using frequencies count, percentages, mean scores and one way ANOVA. Major findings of the study were; Majority of the parents had authoritative parental style, a handsome number of parents keep connection of warmth and support with their children, show intimacy, focus on discipline, do not grant autonomy to their children, do not indulge with their children and as well as a handsome number of students were confident during their studies and study, further, found that parental style had positive relationship with academic achievement. Recommendations were made on the basis of findings and conclusion such as arrangement of Parents Teachers Meetings (PTM‘s), parents’ training, provision of incentives and facilities to motivate families might be an inclusive component of elementary education program.
Keyswords: Academic Achievement, Elementary Education, Parenting Styles
Pages: 95-110
Article: 9 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)09
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Kashmir Conflict and the Question of Self-Determination

  1. Izzat Raazia
  2. Saqib Ur Rehman
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to explore relations between Pakistan and India since their inception in the perspective of Kashmir conundrum and its impact on the regional security. Kashmir is the unfinished agenda of partition and a stumbling block in the bilateral relations between Pakistan and India. After the partition of sub-continent in 1947, Pakistan and India got their sovereign status. Kashmir conflict, a disputed status state, is the byproduct of partition. Pakistan and India are traditional arch-foes. Any clash between Pakistan and India can bring the two nuclear states toe-to-toe and accelerate into nuclear warfare. Due to the revulsion, hostility and lack of trust between the two, the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir issue has been long overdue. Ever-increasing border spats, arms race and threat of terrorism between the two have augmented anxiety in the subcontinent along with the halt of talks between India and Pakistan at several times. Additionally, it hampers the economic and trade ties between the two. India, time and again, backtracked on Kashmir issue despite UN efforts to resolve the issue. Recently, Indian government has responded heavy-handedly to the Kashmiri agitators’ demand for sovereignty and revocation of ‘Special Status’ of Kashmir impacting the stability of the region in future.
Keyswords: India, Kashmir Conundrum, Pakistan, Regional Security, Sovereignty
Pages: 111-119
Article: 10 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)10
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Exploring Image of China in the Diplomatic Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis

  1. Muhammad Afzaal
  2. Muhammad Ilyas Chishti
Abstract: The present study hinges on the major objective of analyzing Pakistani and Indian diplomatic discourses employed in portrayal of image of China. Data comprises the official discourse which is used in diplomatic affairs of both the states. The extensive investigation seeks insights from the fundamentals of Critical Discourse Analysis propounded by van Dijk, Fairclough and Wodak with a special focus on Bhatia’s (2006) work. The study reveals that the image of China has always been accorded priority within Indian and Pakistani diplomatic discourse even though nature of bilateral relations among China, India and Pakistan is based on entirely different dynamics; Indian and Pakistani diplomatic discourses are reflective of sensitivities involved within the bilateral relations. Through employment of linguistic techniques of ‘positivity’, ‘evasion’ and ‘influence and power’, Indian diplomats have managed not to compromise over the fundamentals in bilateral relations with China despite Pakistan’s already strengthened and deep-rooted relations with China. While Pakistani diplomatic fronts have been equally successful in further deepening their already strengthened relations in the midst of surging controversies on CPEC, BRI and OBOR. Hence, diplomatic fronts of both the counties, through employment of ideologically loaded linguistic choices, leave no stone unturned in consolidation of the diplomatic relations with China.
Keyswords: CDA, China Image, Corpus, Language of Diplomacy, Political Discourse Analysis
Pages: 120-133
Article: 11 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)11
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Students’ Perception about Academic Advising Satisfaction at Higher Education Level

  1. Rukhsana Sardar
  2. Zarina Akhtar
  3. Shamsa Aziz
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the students’ perception about academic advising satisfaction at higher education level. All the students from two years master (M.A) degree programme and four years (BS) degree programme of eight departments from International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI), Faculty of Social Sciences were taken as a population of the study. 475 students were randomly selected as a sample of the study. The Academic Advising Inventory (AAI) was used to assess Academic Advising Style. For measuring level of the satisfaction, descriptive statistics was used. To compare the mean difference department-wise and gender-wise about academic advising satisfaction t.test was applied. It was concluded that from the major findings of the study those students who received departmental academic advising style are more satisfied as compared to those students who provided prescriptive academic advising style. Female students seemed more satisfied as compared to male students regarding the academic advising style provided to them. Students who satisfied from developmental academic advising style and they were also highly satisfied from the advising provided to them at Personalizing Education (PE) and this is the subscale of developmental academic advising whereas students who received prescriptive academic advising they were also satisfied from the advising provided to them regarding personalizing education and academic decision making but their percentage is less. It is recommended to Universities Administration to focus on Developmental Academic Advising Style and establish centers at universities/department level and nominate staff who may be responsible to provide developmental academic advising.
Keyswords: Academic Advising, Higher Level, Students’ Perception
Pages: 134-144
Article: 12 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)12
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Perceptions of Sexual Harassment in Higher Education Institutions: A Gender Analysis

  1. Ruhina Ghassan
  2. Dr. Subha Malik
  3. Nayab Javed
Abstract: Sexual harassment is a social issue which is present in every society, globally, which interferes in an individual’s social and professional life. It happens almost everywhere i.e. at workplaces, public places or institutes as well. The focus of the present study was to explore the differences of male and female students’ perception of sexual harassment. This study was a quantitative research. Sample of the study included of 400 students (200 males and 200 females) from two government and two private universities. In the present study, Sexual Harassment Perception Questionnaire (SHPQ) was used to find out these differences in perceptions as every person has his own view for different situations. The study revealed the significant differences in perception of students. Study showed that both genders perceived that female students get more harassed than male students. The factors that affect the perception frequently were gender and age. The findings recommended that regulations for sexual harassment should be implemented in universities; laws should be made for sexual harassment in higher education institutes. Students should be aware of sexual harassment through seminars, self-defense classes and awareness campaigns. And every institute should have a counseling center for the better mental health of students.
Keyswords: Gender Differences, Higher Educational Institutions, Sexual Harassment
Pages: 145-158
Article: 13 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)13
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Role of IMF Over the Governance Structure and Economic Development of Pakistan

  1. Ali Qamar Sheikh
  2. Dr. Muhammad Imran Pasha
  3. Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad Siddiqui
Abstract: Developing countries like Pakistan seeks for financial assistance in order to fulfil their deficits. IMF is one of the largest financial institution who give loans to countries who need it. This research has studied the IMF role and the effects of IMF conditions on the economy of Pakistan. To carry out this research, both quantitative data from primary sources has been gathered and qualitative analysis has been made to signify whither this borrowing creating and maintaining dependency of Pakistan on West and financial and governance structure constructed to curtail Countries like Pakistan. The results concluded that there is negative and insignificant relationship between GDP and IMF loans in the long run. The short-term dynamic shows that weak economic and Political Institutions in Pakistan. The Development dilemma constitutes dependency even today. The Current Budget Deficit Pakistan's fiscal deficit climbs to Rs 3.403 trillion in 2020-21 needs to be readdressed in such a manner that Pakistan can counter Balance of Payments and import/export imbalance.
Keyswords: Dependency, Development, IMF, Loans, Debt, Pakistan, Governance structure
Pages: 159-172
Article: 14 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)14
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Climate Change and the Indus Basin: Prospects of Cooperation between India and Pakistan

  1. Sarah Saeed
  2. Prof. Dr. Rana Eijaz Ahmad
Abstract: Climate change is transforming the global societies. The shift in average temperature is putting negative impacts on human health, food production and the natural resources. In the wake of the altered climate, water flow in the river systems is experiencing variability and uncertainty. This paper aims at studying the negative impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Indus Basin and investigate the prospects of cooperation between India and Pakistan; two major riparian nations sharing the basin. Adopting the case study approach, a theoretical framework has been built on the ‘Theory of the International Regimes’. It has been argued that institutional capacity and the dispute resolution mechanism provided in any water sharing agreement determine the extent of cooperation among the member states. Since India and Pakistan are bound by the provisions of the Indus Waters Treaty, this study tries to assess the effectiveness of this agreement in managing the negative consequences of the climate change.
Keyswords: Climate Change, Cooperation, Dispute Resolution Mechanism, Institutional Capacity
Pages: 173-185
Article: 15 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)15
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Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of Behavioral-Emotional Reactivity Index for Adolescents

  1. Saima Saeed
  2. Farah Malik
  3. Suzanne Bartle Haring
Abstract: Measuring differentiation of self in terms of behavioral/emotional reactivity towards parents is important because of the complex parent-child connection. This needs a valid and reliable measure to assess the differentiation of self particularly in a relationship with parents. Behavior\Emotional Reactivity Index is such a tool that fulfills this purpose. The present study was carried out to culturaly adapt and translate BERI into the Urdu language and establish the psychometric properties of Urdu version. A sample of 303 adolescents of age (M = 16.07, SD = 1.77) was taken from different schools and colleges. Scale was split into Mother and father forms for the convenience of respondents. Findings supported the original factor structure of the BERI-original version. Higher-order factor analysis showed good fit indices with excellent alpha ranges (α= .91 to α=.80). BERI scores were compared for the adolescents who were securely attached with parents and insecurely attached with parents which showed a significant difference between the groups. BERI-Urdu version was found to be a valid and reliable measure in the Pakistani cultural context which gives researchers new directions to work with adolescents.
Keyswords: Adolescence, Differentiation of Self, Behavioral, Emotional Reactivit, Index, Parental Attachment
Pages: 186-200
Article: 16 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)16
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Notion of Repression in Modern Society: A Comparative Analysis of Sigmund Freud and Herbert Marcuse

  1. Khadija Naz
Abstract: One of the fundamental issues for modern civilized man is how to adapt a modern society without losing his individual status. Is it possible for an individual to adjust in a society where he/she loses his/her individuality and becomes part of collectivity? One point of view is that for society to flourish, man needs to be repressed. But to what extent is repression necessary for societies to rise and survive? This paper shall examine the above given questions from the standpoint of two thinkers who greatly influenced twentieth-century thought: Sigmund Freud and Herbert Marcuse. To undertake this task, first the term Repression shall be examined and then the notions of Freud and Marcuse will be discussed to determine the degree of repression required for the development of modern society.
Keyswords: Modern Society, Performance Principle, Repression, Surplus-Repression, The Pleasure Principle, The Reality Principle
Pages: 201-214
Article: 17 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)17
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Perceptions of Teacher Educators about Integration of (ESD) in Elementary Teachers Education Program

  1. Dr. Rukhsana Durrani
  2. Dr. Fazal ur Rahman
  3. Dr. Shaista Anjum
Abstract: Education and sustainable development have a close relationship as education provides sustainability to society. This study explored the perceptions of teacher educators for integration of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in B.Ed. 4 years’ elementary program. Four major components of ESD i.e., Education, Social & Culture, Economic and Environment were included in study. 127 teacher educators from departments of education were randomly selected from public universities of Pakistan who were offering B.Ed. 4 years’ elementary program. Data was collected through questionnaires from teacher educators. The findings recommended the inclusion of the components of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in curriculum of B.Ed. 4 years’ elementary program.
Keyswords: B.Ed. 4 Years Elementary Curriculum, Sustainable Development, Integration, Teacher Education
Pages: 215-225
Article: 18 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)18
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Exploring TPACK skills of prospective teachers and challenges faced in digital technology integration in Pakistan

  1. Tariq Saleem Ghayyur
  2. Dr. Nargis Abbas Mirza
Abstract: The current study was aimed to explore TPACK skills of prospective teachers and challenges faced in digital technology integration in Pakistan. The study was qualitative in nature and semi structured interview schedule was developed to collect data from prospective teachers. Purposive sampling technique was employed to collect data from 20 prospective teachers of 7 public sector universities. It was concluded that majority of the prospective teachers used general technological and pedagogical practices (GTPP), technological knowledge practices (TKP), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge practices (TPKP), Technological Content Knowledge practices (TCKP). Majority of prospective teachers reported multiple challenges in integration of digital technology in teacher education programs including lack of teacher training as one of the largest hurdle in digital technology integration, lack of digital technology resources or outdated digital technology resources, inadequate computer lab, lack of learning apps (courseware), financial constraints, lack of teachers’ motivation to use digital technology, slow computers available at computer labs, and unavailability of technical support. It was recommended that digital technology infrastructure should be improved across all teacher education institution and it was further recommended that TPACK model of digital technology integration should serve digital technology integration in teacher education programs in Pakistan.
Keyswords: Challenges, Digital Technology Integration, Digital Technology Resources, Digital Technology, TPACK
Pages: 226-241
Article: 19 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)19
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Revisiting the Linkage between Money Supply and Income: A Simultaneous Equation Model for Pakistan

  1. Zenab Faizullah
  2. Dr. Shahid Ali
  3. Muhammad Imad Khan
Abstract: A reliable estimate of the money supply is an important sign of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and many other macroeconomic indicators. It is widely discussed that over a long period of time, there is a strong link between GDP and money supply. This link is significantly important for formation of monetary policy. The main aim of this study is to estimate the income-money supply model for Pakistan. This study estimates the income-money supply model for Pakistan over the period of 2009 to 2019. The study uses Two Stage Least Square (2SLS) econometric technique due to the presence of endogeneity problem in the model under consideration. The existence of simultaneity between money supply (M2) and income (GDP) is also clear from the results of Hausman Specification test for simultaneity between M2 and GDP. The results further show that there exists a strong money-income relationship in case of Pakistan.
Keyswords: Money Supply, Income, Simultaneous Equations
Pages: 242-247
Article: 20 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)20
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Analyzing the Mechanism of Language Learning Process by the Use of Language Learning Strategies

  1. Shafiq Ahmad Farooqi
  2. Dr. Muhammad Shakir
  3. Sher Muhammad Awan
Abstract: This analytical research study involves the use of learning strategies to know the mechanism of learning a second language. People acquire their native language (L1) without any conscious effort and they have a complete knowledge of L1 and are competent in their native language even without going to school. It is believed that language learning is a process as well as an outcome and the focus of current study is to understand the process of learning a second language. The population in this study comprised of 182 boys and Girls Govt. Higher Secondary Schools studying at intermediate level in the 11 Districts of the Southern Punjab. The sample was selected through random probability sampling and consisted of 40 subject specialists teaching the subject of English in Govt. higher secondary schools with 400 students studying English at Intermediate level. A questionnaire comprising some common and easily accessible learning strategies was designed to determine the frequency of these strategies used in the classrooms by the language learners through the specialists of the subject. The data was collected from the selected sample through the subject specialists teaching in these schools. The data was collected quantitatively and was analyzed in the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The most common 27 language learning strategies (LLS) were applied to analyze the process of language learning. In the light of the results of the study, it was concluded that application of the learning strategies according to the nature of the text is helpful in understanding the language functions and its application.
Keyswords: Language Acquisition, Learning Strategies, Mechanism of Language Learning
Pages: 249-258
Article: 21 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)21
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Secondary School Science Teachers’ Practices for the Development of Critical Thinking Skills: An Observational Study

  1. Dr. Muhammad Jamil
  2. Dr. Yaar Muhammad
  3. Dr. Naima Qureshi
Abstract: In the National curriculum policy documents, to produce rationale and independent critical thinkers, different pedagogical practices have been recommended like cooperative learning, questioning, discussion, etc. This qualitative case study aimed at analyzing secondary school science teachers’ practices for the development of critical thinking skills in secondary school students. There were twelve classrooms (four from each subject of Physics, Chemistry and Biology) selected as cases. Video recording was used for the observations for six lessons in each classroom. In this way, a total of 72 observations were conducted lasting for approximately 35 minutes. Qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis through Nvivo 12. The findings of the observations revealed that all the teachers used the lecture method. They used this to cover the content at a given specific time. There was not much focus on the development of critical thinking. In a few of the classrooms, the students were engaged and active during learning different specific topics. Whiteboard was used as a visual aid by most of the teachers. Furthermore, to some extent, discussion, questioning, and daily life examples were used in different classrooms. It is recommended that teachers’ professional development should be conducted to focus on the development of critical thinking skills through pedagogical practices which have been recommended by the national education policy documents.
Keyswords: Analysis, Critical Thinking, Curriculum Policy, Pedagogy, Secondary Level
Pages: 259-265
Article: 22 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)22
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Historical Development of Clinical Psychology in Pakistan: A Critical Review-based Study

  1. Muhammad Nawaz Shahzad
  2. Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad
  3. Dr. Muhammad Waseem Tufail
Abstract: Clinical Psychology is clinical and curing psychological practices in Pakistan. The present research study endeavors to examine the contemporary status of Clinical Psychology in the country and descriptively analyzes the significant contribution of various psychologists in its development. The study also elaborates the emergence of Clinical Psychology and its treatment aspects in the country. The experimental approach of the treatment psychology has also been defined. The role of different scholars to set and promote the Clinical Psychology as discipline and dealing about treatment of Human mind has also been discussed here. The study also presented the scenario of the issues of legislative acknowledgment, qualifications mandatory for practice, communal awareness of cerebral treatment, the tradition of ethnic and native practices about the clinical psychological treatments has also been discussed.
Keyswords: Approaches, Clinical Psychology, Psychologist, Therapist
Pages: 266-272
Article: 23 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)23
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Impact of Devolution of Power on School Education Performance in Sindh after 18th Constitutional Amendment

  1. Abdul Hafeez
  2. Dr. Saima Iqbal
  3. Muhammad Imran
Abstract: Devolution of the authority from central units of empowering authorities to the local level to develop and exercise policies at local or organizational level is under debate in various countries of the world. The legation in with the name of 18th constitutional amendment in constitution of 1973 of Pakistan ensures more autonomy to federal units. The difference between province and federation mostly creates misunderstanding in the belief of cooperation and universalism of education standards, expenditures and service delivery. Very currently the ministry of education and local government encoring principles and headmasters to adopt self-management skills to be updated to accept the spin of power from higher authorities to lower authorities’ pedagogical and local schools. In this qualitative research semi structured questioner were incorporated as data collection tool equally, the data was analyzed by usage of NVivo software. In this regard Government of Sindh has introduced various reforms and new trends like objectives and policy pillars, better government schools, improved learning outcomes and increased and improved funding in the education sector Sindh government has so far been unable to effectively use its resources to implement effective governance system which provides quality and sustained education in the province. To achieve this basic universal education, equally fourth objective of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) the educational leaders must develop a comparative education setup that help to educate planers to plan and design standards for school leaders, instruction, appropriate professional development of teachers, ways to support school leaders to change in mission. Parallel, develop new program for early childhood, school and class size and ensure school enrollment.
Keyswords: 18th Constitutional Amendment, Devolution of Power, Sindh Education Performance
Pages: 273-285
Article: 24 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)24
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Legal Aspects of Evidence Collected by Modern Devices: A Case Study

  1. Muhammad Hassan Zia
  2. Alvina Ali
Abstract: This paper is a qualitative research of different case laws dealing with modern technological evidence. Courts were required to adopt new methods, techniques and devices obtained through advancement of science without affecting the original intention of law. Because of modern technology, a benefit could be taken from said technology to preserve evidences and to assist proceedings of the Court in the dispensation of justice in modern times. Owing to the scientific and technological advancements the admissibility of audio and visual proofs has grown doubtful. No doubt modern evidence assist the court in reaching out to the just decision but at the same time certain criteria need to be laid down which must be satisfied to consider such evidence admissible. Different Case laws are discussed here to show how the cases were resolved on the basis of technological evidence and when and why such evidence have been rejected by the court, if it did. Moreover, legal practices developed in various countries allow our Courts to record evidence through video conferencing. The Honorable Supreme Court of Pakistan directed that in appropriate cases statement of juvenile rape victims and other cases of sensitive nature must be recorded through video conferencing to avoid inconvenience for them to come to the Court. Nevertheless, it has some problems. The most important among them is the identification of the witness and an assurance that he is not being prompted when his statement is recorded. In this paper protocols that are necessary to follow while examining witness through video link are discussed
Keyswords: DNA Profiling, Finger Prints, , Telephone Calls, Video Tape
Pages: 286-297
Article: 25 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)25
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The Political Economy of Terrorisms: Economic Cost of War on Terror for Pakistan

  1. Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad Siddiqui
  2. Dr. Muhammad Imran Pasha
  3. Saira Akram
Abstract: Terrorism and its effect on contemporary society is one of the core and vital subjects of International Political Economy (IPE) during the last years. Despite the fact that this is not a new phenomenon, special attention has been given to this issue, specifically after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, 2001. The objective of this paper analyzes to what dimensions terrorism affects the global economy mainly the two predominant actors of the conflict i.e. Pakistan and the United States. For this purpose, this article will take a look at the financial cost of War for Pakistan and how Pakistan’s decision to become frontline State has affected its Economy, its effect on agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, FDI, increased defense costs The normative and qualitative methodology shows a significant disadvantage between terrorist activities and economic growth, social progress, and political development. The results shows that Pakistan has bear slow economic growth while facing terrorist activities more than US. In this last section, the paper suggests ways and means to satisfy people around the world not to go in the hands of fundamentals and terrorists.
Keyswords: Cost of War, Economic Growth, Frontline States, Pak Us Relations, Terrorism
Pages: 297-309
Article: 26 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)26
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A Comparative Study of Grade 10 English Textbooks of Sindh Textbook Board and Cambridge “O Level” in the perspective of Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

  1. Mahnoor Shaikh
  2. Dr. Shumaila Memon
Abstract: The present study evaluated the cognitive levels of reading comprehension questions present in grade 10 English Textbooks namely English Textbook for grade 10 by Sindh Textbook Board and compared it to Oxford Progressive English book 10 used in Cambridge “O Level” in the perspective of Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. Qualitative content analysis was used as a methodology to carry out the study. To collect the data, a checklist based on Revised Bloom’s taxonomy was used as an instrument. A total of 260 reading comprehension questions from both the textbooks were evaluated. The findings of the study revealed that reading comprehension questions in English textbook for grade 10 were solely based on remembering level (100%) whereas the questions in Oxford Progressive English 10 were mainly based on understanding level (75.5%) with a small percentage of remembering (12.5%), analyzing (11.1%) and evaluating level (0.74%). This suggests that the reading comprehension questions in both the textbooks are dominantly based on lower-order thinking skills.
Keyswords: Bloom’s Taxonomy, Content Analysis, Reading Comprehension, Textbook Evaluation
Pages: 310-320
Article: 27 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)27
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Assessing the Preparedness of Government Hospitals: A Case of Quetta City, Balochiatan

  1. Sahar Arshad
  2. Syed Ainuddin
  3. Jamal ud din
Abstract: Earthquake with high magnitude is often resulting in massive destruction with more causalities and high mortality rate. Timely providence of critical healthcare facilities to affected people during an emergency response is the core principle of disaster resilient communities. The main objective of this paper is assessing the hospital preparedness of government hospitals in Quetta. Primary data was collected through questionnaire survey. Total of 165 sample size chosen via simple random sampling. Relative important index (RII) is used to analyze the overall situation of hospitals preparedness in term of earthquake disaster. Findings of the study showed that the preparedness level of government hospitals in Quetta is weak to moderate level. Based on the findings this study recommends the necessary measures to minimize the risk of earthquake disaster including training and exercise programs for the staff of hospital, proper resource management to efficiently use the existing machinery and equipment in the meeting of disaster to enhance employee’s performance and preparedness of government hospitals in Quetta to deal with earthquake disaster.
Keyswords: Earthquake, Preparedness, Relative Important Index
Pages: 321-329
Article: 28 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)28
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Development of Reasoning Skills among Prospective Teachers through Cognitive Acceleration Approach

  1. Memoona Bibi
  2. Dr. Shamsa Aziz
Abstract: The main objectives of this study were to; investigate the effects of the Cognitive Acceleration approach on the reasoning skills of the prospective teachers at the university level and compare the effects of the Cognitive Acceleration approach and traditional approach concerning reasoning skills of prospective teachers’ at the university level. The study was experimental and followed a pre-test post-test control group experimental design. The sample of the study included the experimental group and control group from the BS Education program in the Department of Education at International Islamic University Islamabad. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample after pre-test and pairing of prospective teachers. CTSR (classroom test for scientific reasoning) developed by A.E. Lawson (2000) was used to collect the data through pre-tests and post-tests. The experimental group’s perception about different activities of the experiment was taken through a self-made rating scale. Collected data were analyzed by calculating mean scores and t-test for hypothesis testing by using SPSS. The main findings of the study revealed that the Cognitive Acceleration teaching approach has a significant positive effect on the reasoning skills development of prospective teachers at the university level. Findings also showed that participants found this teaching approach effective and learned many new concepts and skills with the help of thinking activities. Based on findings it has been concluded that the Cognitive Acceleration teaching approach might be encouraged for training prospective teachers at the university level and training sessions about the use of the Cognitive Acceleration approach must be arranged by teacher education programs and institutions.
Keyswords: Cognitive Acceleration Approach, Prospective Teachers, Reasoning Skills, Traditional Approach
Pages: 330-342
Article: 29 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)29
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Spatial Injustice in Shamsie’s Kartography

  1. Syeda Hibba Zainab Zaidi
  2. Dr. Ali Usman Saleem
  3. Sadia Waheed
Abstract: Social space under postmodernism and wave of globalization have suffered in and its idealistic representations are lost and deteriorated which ultimately led to discursiveness in the lives of postmodern man, especially Karachiites. The boundaries of geographies play a significant role in shaping fates, biographies, social superstructures and shared collective histories of its residents. Considering this, Henri Lefebvre and Edward William Soja, argue that space is something which determines the living circumstances within the particular social framework and instigates and controls various societal happenings. City space of Karachi suffers from appalling distortions as a part of postmodern, globalized and capitalist world. By employing Lefebvre’s idea of spatial triad and Soja’s views of the trialectrics of spaciality, this paper foregrounds how social space enforces spatial injustice and serves for the inculcation of spatial cleansing in the lives of inhabitants of urban space. Using Shamsie’s Kartography as an interpretive tool for contemporary urban environment, this paper inquires the engrafting of spatial cleansing in the lives of Karachiites resulting in multiple standardization and segregation on the basis of living standards among different social strata. This research substantiates how in Kartography, Materialism nibbles the roots of social values and norms while sequentially administering Spatial Injustice in the lives of Karachiites. This paper proclaims the scarcity of execution of Spatial Justice in the lives of common people in this postmodern globalized capitalist era. This paper urges the possibility of a utopian urban space with enforced spatial justice where people can be saved from dilemmas of injustice and segregation, especially Karachiites.
Keyswords: Capitalistic Hegemony, City Space, Globalization, Spatial Cleansing, Spatial Injustice
Pages: 343-352
Article: 30 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)30
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A Quasi-Experimental Study on the Performance and Attitudes of Pakistani Undergraduate Students towards Hello English Language Learning Application

  1. Wafa Pirzada
  2. Dr. Shumaila Memon
  3. Dr. Habibullah Pathan
Abstract: With the advancement of technology, more and more avenues of bringing creativity and innovation in language learning have opened up. These exciting advances have given rise to a new field of study within linguistics, termed Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL). This paper aims to fill the gap of MALL research in the area of grammar teaching in the Pakistan. Two BS Part 1 classes from University of Sindh, Jamshoro, were chosen for this quasi-experimental study. In total, 62 out of 101 students volunteered to use the Hello English application for 2 months, making up the experiment group, and the remaining 39 students were put in a control group. Paired Samples T-Test was run on pretest and posttest results which revealed no significant difference in both groups’ performances, proving that Hello English application could not significantly improve students’ grammar performance. However, in spite of the lack of a significant difference between the test results, the data gathered through the attitudinal survey showed that students still found mobile application very easy to use and effective in language learning.
Keyswords: Attitudes, Grammar Learning, Hello English, Mobile Language Learning, Technology In Language Learning
Pages: 353-367
Article: 31 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)31
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Impact of Determinants on the Profile Elevation of Secondary School Teachers in Pakistan

  1. Zahida Aziz Sial
  2. Dr. Farah Latif Naz
  3. Humaira Saadia
Abstract: The foremost purpose of this research paper was to interrogate the effects of determinants on the educational and social profile of secondary school teachers in Pakistan. The key question taken was related to determinants that affect teachers’ profile. The Population of the study was secondary school teachers of Punjab province. A questionnaire was used as research instrument. The researcher personally visited the schools to administer the questionnaire. E-Views software was used for data analysis. Moreover, OLS regression model and LOGIT regression model were carried out. It was found that the variable years of teaching experience (EXPYR) (*** 0.03) can have a vital concrete effect upon the societal figuration of teachers as the experience of teachers grows, so does their social interactions with officials, colleagues, students and friends increases. The said variable is significant at 10 percent level. The variable, Residence (RESIDE) (** 0.53) have a significant impact upon civic links. This obviously associated with less community connection of country side teachers than the teachers residing in urban areas.
Keyswords: Determinants, Elevation, Educational Profile, Social Profile, Secondary School Teacher
Pages: 368-372
Article: 32 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)32
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Impact of War on Terror on the Tourism Industry in Swat, Pakistan

  1. Sabir Ihsan
  2. Prof. Dr. Anwar Alam
  3. Aman Ullah
Abstract: The present study was designed to ascertain the status of tourism before insurgency, during insurgency and after insurgency in District Swat-KP Pakistan. The study is quantitative and descriptive in nature. A diverse sample size of 370 out of 9014 was selected through convenient sampling strategy. Notwithstanding, the objectives of the study was achieved through structured questionnaire. Data was analysed through chi-square at Bi Variate level. Findings of the study revealed that earning livelihood in swat was significantly associated (P=0.016), (P=0.003) with tourism industry prior 2009 and present time respective, but the same statement was observed non-significant (P=0.075) at the time of insurgency. Arranging different festivals in the study area and establishment of different showrooms for local handcrafts, artificial jewellery and woollen shawl are some of the recommendations of the study.
Keyswords: Business, Insurgency, Swat, Tourism
Pages: 373-385
Article: 33 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)33
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Challenges and Prospects of Pak-China Economic Corridor

  1. Muhammad Mudabbir Malik
  2. Prof. Dr. Muqarrab Akbar
Abstract: Pak-China has historic relationships from the emergence of both states, and were proved long-lasting in every thick and thin times. In initial times they supported each other in foreign policies and regional issues. Pakistan and China have border disputes with India, which forced them to come close to counter India, letter on the economic interests strengthened these relations. In order to maximize the economic benefits, China announced economic corridor with the name China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CEPC). It was thought it will boost the economic growth of China, and as a prime partner Pakistan will also get economic benefits. In order to completely understand how Pakistan and China came on the same page and decided to put CPEC into reality we have to understand the Geo-political Importance of Pakistan, Strategic and economic importance of CPEC for China and Pakistan, Influence and concerns of West and neighboring countries including India. Domestic limitations and all the possible benefits and risks involved in this project for both Pakistan and China, this research acknowledges all these questions.
Keyswords: Challenges, China, CPEC, Domestic Limitations Economic Growth, Pakistan, Western and Regional Concerns
Pages: 386-404
Article: 34 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)34
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An Analysis of Learning Practices and Habits of Children at Early Childhood Education: Students’ Perspective

  1. Masood Ahmad
  2. Sabiha Iqbal
  3. Shaista Noreen
Abstract: The study was designed to analysis learning practices and habits of children at early childhood education. The major objective of the study was to find out the learning practices and habits of children. Problem was related to current situation, so survey method was exercised, 220 students were selected with the help of convenient sampling technique. Self-constructed questionnaire were exercised. The collected data was analyzed and calculate frequency, percentage, mean score, standard deviation and t-test of independent variable. The major findings of the study were; students learn from the pictures, cartoons and funny face; student’s eyes get tired of reading. When student read context continuously then they feel that their eyes get tired. There was a significance difference between male and female student about learning practices and habits of children.
Keyswords: Early Childhood Education, Learning Practices and Habits, Pre-School Students
Pages: 405-416
Article: 35 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)35
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Gender Identity Construction in Akhtar’s Melody of a Tear

  1. Dr. Amna Saeed
  2. Hina Quddus
Abstract: This study aims to discuss the notion of gender in terms of performativity and social construction. It also draws upon the idea of gender identity construction and how it relates to the society, performativity and biology. As its theoretical framework, the study relies upon the Performative Theory of Gender and Sex (1990) presented by Judith Butler and studies the gender identity construction in the female protagonist of Akhtar’s Melody of a Tear. Zara is a girl who is raised as a boy from his father and there is a kind of dilemma in Zara’s personality related to being masculine and feminine. The cultural norms of a particular gender are also a cause of this dilemma. Throughout the novel, she is in a conflicting state whether she should behave feminine or masculine. She is being depicted as an incomplete person until she finds and resolves this issue of gender identity. The paper discusses the gender performativity, social construction, cultural norms and identity as these are all contributing to the confusion and construction of the protagonist’s identity. Character analysis is used as the methodology of analysis.
Keyswords: Cultural Norms, Femininity And Identity Confusion, Gender, Performativity, Masculinity, Social Construction
Pages: 417-427
Article: 36 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)36
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The Level of Impulsivity and Aggression among Crystal Meth and Cannabis Users

  1. Dr. Umbreen Khizar
  2. Muhammad Shafique
  3. Sana Nawab
Abstract: Cannabis and crystal meth use is pervading in our society. Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between level of impulsivity and aggression among crystal meth and cannabis users. The sample of the present study was comprised of 100 participants. There were 50 cannabis and 50 crystal meth users who were diagnosed on the basis of DSM-V without any comorbidity. The sample were taken from all age range of population. The minimum education level was primary and maximum education level was graduation and above. The sample was selected from different drug rehabilitation centers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Demographic Performa was used to collect the initial important information, The “Barratt Impulsiveness Scale was used to measure the impulsivity and “Aggression Questionnaire” were used to measure the level of aggression. Finding of the study showed that there are significant differences among crystal meth and cannabis users on level of aggression. The calculated mean value for crystal meth user and for cannabis users indicates that crystal meth users have higher level of aggression as compared to the cannabis user. Over all analysis indicates a significant positive correlation of impulsivity with the variable aggression. The alpha coefficient value for all scale is acceptable.
Keyswords: Aggression, Cannabis Users, Crystal Meth, Impulsivity
Pages: 428-439
Article: 37 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)37
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Impact of Social Factors on the Status of Tribal Women: A Case Study of the (Erstwhile) Mohmand Agency

  1. Sadia Jabeen
  2. Prof. Dr. Anwar Alam
  3. Muhammad Jawad
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of socio-economic and cultural factors on the status of tribal women in the erstwhile Mohmand agency of the Ex-Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA), Pakistan. Cultural practices and illiteracy impede the role of women in socio-economic development. The respondents were randomly selected from tehsil Ekka Ghund and Pindialai with a sample size of 370, through stratified random sampling. Data collected through structured interview schedule, FGD and observation technique. The study reveals that tribal practices early marriages, joint family system, tradition of forced marriages, compensation/Swara, exchange, purchase marriages, hampers women’s socioeconomic status. The illiteracy rate is high among the tribal women and it further undermines their role and negatively affects their socio-economic status. However, improvement in women status needs peace and stability, reforms in the constitution for women empowerment and active participation, improvement in the quality and quantity of education, women employability, skills development and women entrepreneurship
Keyswords: Empowerment and Education, Marriage Types, Tribal Women Role, Tribal Women Status, Violence against Women
Pages: 440-455
Article: 38 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)38
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Effects of Heavy School Bags on Students’ Health at Primary Level in District Haveli (Kahutta) Azad Jammu and Kashmir

  1. Dr. Muhammad Mushtaq
  2. Shamsa Rathore
  3. Mishbah Saba
Abstract: Heavy school bags is a very serious issue for the health of the primary level students throughout the world particularly in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. This study intends to explore the effect of heavy school bags on students’ health at primary level in district Kahuta. Naturally the study was descriptive and survey method was used, the population consists of one hundred ninety teachers and a sample of one hundred twenty seven teachers was selected using non probability sampling technique. A likert scale questionnaire was developed validated and distributed among the sampled respondents. The researcher personally visited the schools and collected the filled questionnaire. The data was coded and fed to the SPSS to analyze and interpret. The Chi Square test was applied to see the effect of heavy school bags on student’s health and academic achievement. The study found that heavy bags have negative effect on their health as well as their academic achievement. Students were found complaining their sickness, body and back pain. They were also found improper in their gait and their body postures. The researcher recommended the policy makers to take and develop strategies to decrease the heavy school bags. The school administration needs to make alternate days’ time tables of the subjects.
Keyswords: Health, Primary Level, School, Bags, Students Heavy
Pages: 456-466
Article: 39 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)39
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Exploring the ‘Civil Repair’ Function of Media: A Case Study of The Christchurch Mosques Shootings

  1. Ayaz Khan
  2. Dr. Muhammad Junaid Ghauri
  3. Riffat Alam
Abstract: This research endeavor is an attempt to explore and analyze the discourse produced by The New Zealand Herald; a newspaper from New Zealand and by The News International; a Pakistani newspaper. The researchers intend to determine whether and to what extent both the newspapers have the role of ‘civil repair’ played after the Christchurch mosques shootings. The researchers have incorporated the ‘lexicalization’ and the ‘ideological square’ techniques proposed by Tuen A. van Dijk within the scope of Critical Discourse Analysis. The findings of this study show that both the selected newspapers assuming the social status of ‘vital center’ performed the role of ‘civil repair’ in the aftermath of the shootings by producing the ‘solidarity discourse’. The ‘solidarity discourse’ has been produced in terms of the ‘we-ness’, harmony, understanding, and by mitigating the conflicting opinions.
Keyswords: Christchurch Mosque Shootings, Civil Repair, Civil Sphere Theory, Lexicalization, Solidarity Discourse
Pages: 467-484
Article: 40 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)40
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China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Regional Dominance into Peace and Economic Development

  1. Tayba Anwar
  2. Asia Saif Alvi
Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the true motivations behind CPEC idea and the advantages it delivers to Pakistan and China. It also recognizes the Corridor's potential for mixing regional economies while dissolving geographical borders. The study is deductive in character, since it examines financial, political, and military elements of Pakistan and China's positions and situations. Enhancing geographical linkages through improved road, train, and air transport systems with regular and free exchanges of development and individual’s interaction, boosting through educational, social, and regional civilization and wisdom, activity of larger quantity of investment and commerce flow, generating and moving energy to provide more optimal businesses for the region.
Keyswords: Geographical Linkages, Globalized World, Landlocked, Regional Connectivity, Regionalization
Pages: 485-497
Article: 41 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)41
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China’s New Great Game in Central Asia: Its Interest and Development

  1. Bushra Fatima
  2. Rana Eijaz Ahmad
Abstract: Central Asia is rich in hydrocarbon resources. It’s geostrategic, geopolitical, and geo-economic significance has grasped the attention of multiple actors such as China, the USA, Russia, Turkey, the European Union, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India. Due to its location, the Central Asian region appeared as a strategic hub. In the present scenario, China’s strategy is massive economic development, energy interest, peace, and stability. This article highlights China’s interest, political and economic development, and its role as a major player in the New Great Game in Central Asia. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) which presents as a platform where China is playing an active role in political, economic, and security concerns for achieving its objectives in Central Asia. The new step of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) sheds light on China’s progressive move in this region via land and sea routes, which creates opportunities for globalization.
Keyswords: Belt and Road Initiative, Central Asia, China, New Great Game
Pages: 498-509
Article: 42 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)42
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Personality Traits as Predictors of Self-Esteem and Death Anxiety among Drug Addicts

  1. Umbreen Khizar
  2. Saira Irfan
  3. Iram Ramzan
Abstract: This study seeks to investigate whether personality traits predict self-esteem and death anxiety among drug addicts. The sample consisted of 100 drug addicts taken from the two hospitals in Multan city. Only men between the ages of 20 and 65 were included in the study. Data was collected through reliable and valid questionnaires. Results revealed positive relationship between conscientiousness, openness to experience and self-esteem. Moreover, findings showed positive relationship between extraversion and death anxiety, and negative correlation between neuroticism and death anxiety. Findings also showed that self-esteem and death anxiety are significantly and negatively correlated. Additionally, findings revealed that conscientiousness positively predicted self-esteem and neuroticism negatively predicted death anxiety. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in self-esteem, and death anxiety based on age. Significant differences were also found in extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, and death anxiety based on location. Understanding how personality traits affect behavior can help drug addicts get the support they need to live a better life and reduce their risk of death anxiety and premature death.
Keyswords: Death Anxiety, Drug Users, Personality Traits, Self- Esteem
Pages: 510-524
Article: 43 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)43
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Middle East: A Regional Instability Prototype Provoking Third Party Interventions

  1. Waseem Din
  2. Prof. Dr. Iram Khalid
Abstract: Third party interventions always prolong the interstate or civil wars with unending sufferings and devastations. The entire Middle East region is fraught with tensions, conflicts, civil wars and rivalries. From strategic interests to power grabbing, sectarian divisions, flaws in the civil and social structure of the state and society, ethnic insurrections, and many other shapes of instability syndromes can be diagnosed in this region. In the post-Arab Spring, 2011, the emerging new regional hierarchical order for power/dominance, in addition to the weakening/declining dominant US power in the region, changed the entire shape of already conflict-ridden region. New weak or collapsing states and bifurcation of the ‘status quo’ and ‘counter-hegemonic’ states along with their respective allies, made this region a prototype of instability in the regional security complex of the Middle East, as a direct result of these developments. The perpetuation of these abnormalities would not recede this instability conundrum from the region, provoking third party intervention, if not contained.
Keyswords: Conflicts/Civil Wars, Dominant Power, Instability, Intervention, Middle East, Middle Powers, Regional Hierarchy, Regional Powers, Security Complex, Weak State
Pages: 525-542
Article: 44 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)44
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Impact of Classroom Environment on Second Language Learning Anxiety

  1. Zohaib Zahid
Abstract: Second language learning anxiety has attained the attention of the researchers in almost every part of the world. Pakistan is a country where English is taught as a second language from the very beginning of school education. Second Language learning anxiety is a phenomenon which has been prominently found among the learners because of their less proficiency in learning English language. This study has been conducted to investigate the effect of anxiety in learning and using English language in classroom, university and outside the classroom. There are variables that affect language learning performance of the learners but this paper has solely investigated the effect of anxiety. The paper has concluded that anxiety is a variable which has a striking affect in second language learning and its use inside classrooms.
Keyswords: Effect of Anxiety, Proficiency, Second Language Learning Anxiety, Striking Affect
Pages: 485-497
Article: 45 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)45
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Struggling for Democracy: A Case of Democratization in Pakistan

  1. Ammara Tariq Cheema
  2. Dr. Rehana Saeed Hashmi
Abstract: The objective of this research paper is to review the challenges for democratization in Pakistan. The problem of democratization and consolidation refers to the structure of democracy following the collapse of non-democratic regime. Ten factors as given by Michael J. Sodaro are considered effective in helping a democratically unstable state to stabilize its system in other words helps in the democratic consolidation. It is argued in this research that the ten factors of democratization as given by Michael J. Sodaro have been absent in the political system of Pakistan and working on these factors can lead Pakistan to the road of democratization. This study uses qualitative method of research and proposes a novel framework for the deed of parliament, because the effectiveness of parliament can contribute positively to democratization/consolidated democracy.
Keyswords: Electoral Politics, General Elections, Political Participation, Women Empowerment
Pages: 554-562
Article: 46 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)46
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Impact of Dependency Ratio on Economic Growth among Most Populated Asian Countries

  1. Dilshad Ahmad
  2. Salyha Zulfiqar Ali Shah
Abstract: Demographic transition through different channels significantly influences economic growth. Malthusian view postulated as dependency ratio adversely affects economic growth while Julian Simon's view is quite different, highlighted the long-run benefits of the population in the range of 5 to15 years on economic growth. This study can be a valuable addition in research to analyzing the association of dependency ratio and economic growth of the five most populated Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, India, and Pakistan). Empirical findings of the study indicated that a total dependency and younger dependency ratio has a positive and significant influence on economic growth in both short-run and long-run scenarios while the old dependency ratio shows a negative influence on economic growth in the long run while short-run results are unpredictable. There is a need for state-based proper policy measures in focusing the higher financing in human capital development specifically in education and health.
Keyswords: Economic Growth, Gross Saving, Old Dependency Ratio, Young Dependency Ratio
Pages: 563-579
Article: 47 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)47
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Chinese Geo-Strategic Objectives and Economic Interests in Afghanistan under President Xi Jinping

  1. Farooq Ahmed
  2. Prof. Dr. Iram Khalid
Abstract: China has its own distinctive interests, concerns and strategies with respect to the changing security dynamics in Afghanistan. China has taken an active interest, though retaining a low profile and avoiding direct military interaction. China has exclusively relished on economic engagement actively and provided numerous financial aid and financial support in the rebuilding of Afghanistan's economy. The aim of this research study is to analyze the geo-strategic objectives and economic interests of China under the leadership of President Xi Jinping. This study looks at the actual diplomatic, economic and protection commitments of both countries as well as the basis of the geopolitical complexities – core variables that form China's current foreign policy to Afghanistan.
Keyswords: Afghanistan, BRI, China, NATO Withdrawal
Pages: 580-592
Article: 48 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)48
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The Argument Structure of Intransitive Verbs in Pashto

  1. Abdul Hamid
  2. Nadeem Haider Bukhari
  3. Ghani Rehman
Abstract: This study focuses on the description and categorization of intransitive verbs in terms of its argument structure. The study concludes that the unaccusative verbs only project an internal argument. It does not require the event argument. However, the said verb can be causativised by adding external argument and at the same time the event argument gets included in the valency of the derived causative of the unaccusative root. The unergative, on the other hand, requires an external argument as an obligatory argument while the internal argument is not the obligatory argument of the verb. The event argument is also a part of the valency of the verb. The APFs require one argument which is the internal argument of the verb. However, since the external argument is not available, the internal argument of the verb gets realized as the subject of the verb. The verb does not project event argument. The ergative predicates are derived by the suppression of the external argument and by the externalization of the internal argument.
Keyswords: Argument Structure, Ergative Case, Event Argument, External Argument, Internal Argument, Valency
Pages: 593-610
Article: 49 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)49
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Positive, Negative and Criminal Orientation of Beggars in Okara: Perspective of Students

  1. Shahzad Farid
  2. Saif-Ur-Rehman Saif Abbasi
  3. Hassan Raza
Abstract: This study aimed to measure the perspective of students about the criminal orientation of beggars. The sample size of the study (i.e., 100 students) was explored using Taro Yamane’ equation from the university of Okara, Punjab, Pakistan. The respondents were approached using simple random sampling and interviewed using face to face interview schedule. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The analysis was administered through SPSS-20.The study explored that parental illiteracy is associated with the high criminal and negative orientation of students towards beggars. It was also explored that females and respondents from rural background have low negative orientation towards beggars. However, males and respondents from urban background have medium criminal orientation and low positive orientation towards beggars, respectively. The study is useful for the government of Punjab, Pakistan campaign and policy for anti-begging. The study introduced the geometrical model of youth’s orientation toward begging. The study also contributed to the literature on begging by extending its domain from Law and Criminology to sociology as it incorporated social variables e.g., parents’ education, gender, etc., to explore their association with the youth’s socialization about begging.
Keyswords: Begging, Crime, Education, Gender, Students
Pages: 611-621
Article: 50 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)50
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Relationship between Entrepreneurial Export Orientation and Export Entrepreneurship through Mediation of Entrepreneurial Capabilities

  1. Muhammad Saqib Nawaz
  2. Masood ul Hassan
Abstract: Export led growth is prominent paradigm in developing world since decades. Exports play vital role in the economy by improving the level of balance of payments, economic growth and employment. Due to strategic importance of exports, organizational researchers focused on finding antecedents of export performance of the organizations. To line with this, current study aims to find the impact of entrepreneurial export orientation on export entrepreneurship through mediation of entrepreneurial capabilities in the Pakistani context. For this purpose, data was collected from 221 exporting firms of Pakistan by using questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed with the help of Smart PLS. In findings, measurement model confirmed the validity and reliability of measures of variables. Additionally, structural model provides the positive impact of entrepreneurial export orientation on export entrepreneurship. Similarly, entrepreneurial capabilities mediate the relationship between entrepreneurial export orientation on export entrepreneurship. The findings provide important implications for the managers of exporting firms to improve export performance.
Keyswords: Entrepreneurial Capabilities, Entrepreneurial Export Orientation, Export Entrepreneurship
Pages: 622-636
Article: 51 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)51
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China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Explaining U.S-India Strategic Concerns

  1. Nasreen Akhtar
  2. Dilshad Bano
Abstract: Regional and International political and economic landscape is being changed owing to China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CEPEC)-the new security paradigm has taken place-that has increased the strategic concerns of the U.S. and India. This research paper attempts to re-examine China-Pakistan relations in the new emerging geo-political compass. This paper has investigated the question that how regional, and global developments have impacted the China-Pakistan relationship? And why China – Pakistan have become partners of CPEC? In the global context, this paper assesses the emerging International Order, Indo-U. S strategic narrative vis-à-vis CPEC, and the containment of China through the new alliances and their impacts on China -Pakistan vis-à-vis the Belt Road Initiative (BRI). Quadrilateral (Quad) alliances is shaping the new strategic political and security paradigms in the world politics.
Keyswords: BRI, China, CPEC, India, Pakistan, Silk Road, Strategic Concerns
Pages: 637-649
Article: 52 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)52
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The Structure of Domestic Politics and 1973 Constitution of Pakistan

  1. Dr. Fida Bazai
  2. Dr. Ruqia Rehman
  3. Amjad Rashid
Abstract: Pakistan is located in a pivotal region. Its geo-strategic location affects its national identity as a nation state. Unlike Europe in South Asia security dilemma, proxy warfare and nuclear arms race are consistent features of the regional politics. The identity of Pakistan as security-centric state gives its army disproportional power, which created institutional imbalance that directly affected constitutionalism in the country. The constitution of Pakistan is based on principles of civilian supremacy and separation of power but in reality Pakistan’s army is the most powerful institution in country. This paper argues that the structure of Pakistani politics; created institutional imbalances by the disproportionate distribution of resources is the key variable in creating dichotomy. The structure of domestic politics is based upon the principles of hostility to India, use of Islam for national unity and strategic alliances with major powers to finance defense against the neighboring countries.
Keyswords: Constitutionalism, Identity, Islam, South Asia
Pages: 650-661
Article: 53 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)53
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National Integration and Regionalism in Pakistan: Government’s Strategy and Response toward Regionalist Demands 1947-77

  1. Najeeb ur Rehman
  2. Mohammad Dilshad Mohabbat
  3. Muhammad Wahid
Abstract: The countries of South Asian region have pluralistic societies with different language, religious, and ethnic identities. Pakistan is no exception who is facing the challenge of regionalism since its inception. Different ethnic groups have been consistently raising their voices for separatism or autonomy within the frame work of an existing territorial state. The issues of provincialism, ethnicity, and regionalism is posing a serious challenge to the integrity of the country. This paper aims to explore the causes of the regionalism in Pakistan and intends to analyze the policies and strategies of different political governments which they launched to tackle this all important issue. The paper follows the historical method of research and analyzes different types of qualitative data to conclude the finding of the research. The paper develops the theory of “Regionalists Demand and Government Response” which shows how different regionalist forces put their demands and how the governments react on these demands. It recommends the grant of greater regional autonomy to the regionalists to enhance internal security and to protect the country from disintegration.
Keyswords: Demands, Ethnicity, Government Strategy, National Integrity, Nationalism, Regionalism
Pages: 662-678
Article: 54 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)54
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Fostering Entrepreneurial Mindset through Entrepreneurial Education: A Qualitative Study

  1. Saira Maqbool
  2. Dr. Qaisara Parveen
  3. Dr. Muhammad Hanif
Abstract: Research on entrepreneurial mindset has flourished in these recent years. Its significance lies in a critical suspicion and its matters for inventive behavior. Entrepreneurship joined with innovative abilities, seen as one of the most wanted in this day and age. This study aims to determine the perceptions about entrepreneurial mindset, its importance, and the role of entrepreneurship education and Training in developing the entrepreneurial mindset. This is a qualitative study based on interviews conducted by professors of Pakistan and Germany. The analysis was determined through content analysis. The results determine that 'Making Entrepreneurial Mindset' assists with seeing better all parts of business venture, which will undoubtedly influence their view of business venture, pioneering abilities, and mentalities.
Keyswords: Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Mindset
Pages: 679-691
Article: 55 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)55
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Benefits of Implementing Single National Curriculum in Special Schools of Lahore city for Children with Intellectual Disability: Teachers’ Perception

  1. Dr. Hina Fazil
  2. Khurram Rameez
  3. Sidra Ansar
Abstract: Single national curriculum (SNC) is an important issue across the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Making and implementing SNC is not only focusing the education of normal pupils, but also focusing students with disabilities (SWD). The field of special education experienced an increased discussion of curriculum for students with intellectual disabilities (SID). The present research aimed to know the benefits to implement first stage of single national curriculum for students with Intellectual disability and to know the differences about the benefits between public and private schools regarding SNC for students with ID based on demographic characteristics. Likert type researchers-made questionnaire with reliability) Cronbach alpha .922) was used. 90 special educationists from public and private schools were chosen through random sampling technique. The findings raised some benefits such as: SNC will bridge the social and economic disparities which will increase the acceptance of ID students. It was recommended that SNC should include areas of adaptive skills, motor, and vocational skills to get involved in work activities.
Keyswords: Benefits, Children with Intellectual Disability, Single National Curriculum
Pages: 692-703
Article: 56 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)56
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Last Rituals and Problems Faced by the Hindu Community in Punjab: A Case Study of Lahore

  1. Sabir Naz
Abstract: Lahore is the provincial capital of Punjab, where a sizeable population of the Hindus has been residing there since the inception of Pakistan. There had been many crematoriums in the city but with the passage of time, one after another, disappeared from the land after partition of the Sub-continent. Those places were replaced by commercial or residential sites. There is also a graveyard in the city which is in the use of Hindu Valmik Sect. However, it was encroached by some Muslims due to very small size of population and indolence of the Hindus. Later on, the encroachments were removed by the District Government Lahore in compliance of order of the Supreme Court of Pakistan. Presently, there is a graveyard as well as a crematorium in the city. The community remained deprived of a place to dispose of a dead body according to their faith for a long period which is contravention with the guidelines of the Quaid-e-Azam, founder of the nation
Keyswords: Crematorium, Graveyard, Hindu community, Last Rituals
Pages: 704-713
Article: 57 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)57
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Estimating Growth Model by Non-Nested Encompassing: A Cross Country Analysis

  1. Benish Rashid
  2. Dr. Shahid Razzaque
  3. Dr. Atiq ur Rehman
Abstract: Whether models are nested or non-nested it is important to be able to compare them and evaluate their comparative results. In this study six growth models have been used for analyzing the main determinants of economic growth in case of cross countries, therefore by using these six models we have tested them for non-nested and nested encompassing through Cox test and F-test respectively. Data from 1980 to 2020 were used to analyze the cross country growth factors so therefore, the current study looked at about forty four countries with modelling these different comparative studies based on growth modelling. So, we can make these six individual models and we can estimate the General Unrestricted Model with the use of econometric technique of Non-Nested Encompassing. By evaluating the data using the Non-Nested Encompassing econometric technique, different sets of economic variables has been used to evaluate which sets of the economic variables are important to boost up the growth level of the country. And found that in case of nested model or full model it is concluded that model with lag value of GDP, trade openness, population, real export, and gross fix capital formation are the main and potential determinants to boost up the Economic Growth in most of the countries.
Keyswords: Cross Country, Economic Growth, Encompassing, Nested, Non-nested
Pages: 714-727
Article: 58 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)58
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Assessment of Youth Buying Behaviour for Organic Food Products in Southern Punjab: Perceptions and Hindrances

  1. Ayousha Rahman
  2. Asif Yaseen
  3. Muhammad Arif Nawaz
Abstract: This research examined the cognitive antecedental effects on organic food purchase behaviour for understanding the perceptions and hindrances associated with purchasing organic food products. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was adopted as a theoretical framework. A total of 250 young consumers in the two cities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan was randomly sampled and data were collected via a face-to-face survey method. Partial least square technique was employed to test the model. The results showed that attitude towards organic food purchasing motivated when moral norms were activated to consume organic food products. Further, environmental knowledge moderated the relationship of organic food purchase intentions and behaviour significantly. The findings highlighted the importance of moral norms as a meaningful antecedent that could increase the TP-based psychosocial processes if consumers have sufficient environmental knowledge. Therefore, farmers, organic products marketers, government administrators, and food retailers should take initiatives not only to highlight the norms and values but also when promoting organic food production and consumption.
Keyswords: Environmental Knowledge, Organic Food Purchase Behaviour, Personal Attitude, PLS-SEM, Subjective & Moral Norms
Pages: 728-748
Article: 59 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)59
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An Analysis on Students Ideas about English and Urdu as Medium of Instructions in the Subjects of Social Sciences studying in the Colleges of the Punjab, Pakistan

  1. Ashiq Hussain
  2. Asma Amanat
Abstract: The worth and usefulness of English education as a foreign language is of great concern to language rule and planning (LRP) researchers compared to teaching their native language globally in higher education. The study under research examines the perspectives of two similar groups of the final year students of at Higher Education Institutions of Pakistan. The first group consists of art students who received the Urdu medium of instruction (UMI), and the second group received the English medium of instruction (EMI). An empirical methodology was carried out in the present year, students answered questionnaires to find out the benefits and challenges of learning subject-based knowledge, what subject-based knowledge means to them, and their understanding of language as a teaching language. Interviews were conducted with the selected group of students who wished to participate in research. Additional information is available from the tests and results obtained in the two equivalent courses. Although many similarities have been identified between the two groups, the overall knowledge of disciplinary knowledge of English medium instruction students was not very effective, while that of UMI students was very effective. It explains the implications of the findings to continue the language rule as policy experience for teaching in higher education institutions.
Keyswords: English as Medium of Instruction (EMI), Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), Urdu as Medium of Instruction (UMI)
Pages: 749-760
Article: 60 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)60
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Environment and Women in Kurt Vonnegut’s ‘Happy Birthday Wanda Juny’: An Eco- Critical and Feminist Analysis

  1. Dr. Muhammad Asif
  2. Safana Hashmat Khan
  3. Muhammad Afzal Khan Janjua
Abstract: This is an Eco-feminist study of Vonnegut’s ‘Happy Birthday Wanda Juny’ and focuses on how both women and environment are exploited by patriarchy. Ecofeminism critiques masculine dominance highlighting its role in creating and perpetuating gender discrimination, social inequity and environmental degradation. Women suffer more because of power disparity in society. Environmental crises affect women more than men because of their already precarious existence and subaltern position. There is affinity between women and nature are victims of climate change and other environmental hazards. Cheryl Glotfelty introduced interdisciplinary approach to the study of literature and environment. Literary ecology as an emerging discipline explores the intriguing relationship between environment and literature. Ecofeminism draws on feminist critique of gender inequality showing how gender categories inscribed in power structure exploit both women and nature. Francoise d‘Eaubonne coined the term ecofeminism to critique the prevalent exploitation of both women and environment. Ecofeminism asserts that exploitation of women and degradation of the environment are the direct result of male dominance and capitalism. Ecofeminism argues for redressing the plight of women and protection of environment. Vonnegut’s play ‘Happy Birthday Wanda June’ was written at a time when the movement for the right of women and protection of environment were gaining momentum. The play shows how toxic masculinity rooted in power and capitalism exploit both women and environment.
Keyswords: Eco-Feminism, Eco-Criticism, Ecology, Environment, Exploitation
Pages: 761-773
Article: 61 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)61
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Critical Analysis of Social Equity and Economic Opportunities in the Light of Quranic Message

  1. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeel
  2. Mahnaz Aslam
  3. Zahida Shah
Abstract: This study critically evaluated the key verses of Surah Al-Baqarah -the second chapter of Quran, a sacred scripture of Islam- which specifically relates to social equity opportunities and a code of conduct in the context of economics. The Quran claims that it is a book which explains every situation; therefore, the aim of this study remained to extract those verses of Surah Al-Baqarah which can guide us in Economics. The authentic and approved Islamic clerics and their translations were consulted for the interpretations of the Holy verses. The researchers chiefly focused and studied Surah Baqarah with regards to social equity and economic opportunities. The translations were primarily in the regional language Urdu so the interpretations must not be related exactly equitable in English. The study engaged the document analysis research strategy. This study is only an endeavour to decipher Holy Quran’s message from Allah for the mankind so it must not be considered as the full and complete solution to the all the economic issues, challenges and opportunities. Ahadees and the saying of the Holy prophet were referred to where ever required and available. The researcher also considered the Tafasir (detail intellectual interpretations) of the Quran done by the well-known scholars of Islam for the verses studied therein and any statements and/or material - such as ideas, studies, articles, documentation, data, reports, facts, statistics etc. For the study, data was collected and analyzed qualitatively. On the basis of the study, recommendations were also primed.
Keyswords: Economic Issues and Challenges, Social Equity, Surah Al-Baqarah, Al Quran
Pages: 774-790
Article: 62 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)62
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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Dastak by Mirza Adeeb

  1. Muhammad Afzal
  2. Dr. Syed Kazim Shah
  3. Umar Hayat
Abstract: The present research aims to explore ideology in Pakistani drama. The drama, “Dastak”, written by Mirza Adeeb, has been taken for exploration ideologically. Fairclough’s (1992) three-dimensional model has been used for analyzing the text of the above-mentioned drama which includes textual, discursive practice and social practice analyses. The linguistic and social analyses of the drama reveal the writer’s ideology about socio-cultural, conventional and professional aspects of life. The study has also explored the past and present states of mind of Dr. Zaidi, the central and principal character of the drama, Dastak. The text implies that the writer has conveyed personal as well as social aspects of his times through the drama of Dastak.
Keyswords: Dastak, Drama, Ideology, Semiotics
Pages: 791-807
Article: 63 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)63
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Linking Job Satisfaction to Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics

  1. Dr. Shakira Huma Siddiqui
  2. Dr. Hira Salah ud din Khan
  3. Dr. Nabeel Younus Ansari
Abstract: The most pervasive concern in public sector organizations is declining employee performance and workforce of these organizations are less satisfied with their jobs. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of Job Satisfaction on employee’s performance and how Islamic work ethics moderates the above mentioned direct relationship in the public sector organizations of Pakistan. The data were collected from the sample of 193 permanent employees working in public sector organizations through stratified sampling technique. The results revealed that employees Job satisfaction is significantly related to higher performance. Further, the findings indicated that Islamic work ethics moderates the relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance. The present research has some theoretical and empirical implications for academicians, policymakers, especially of public sector organizations, for the improvement of performance of their workforce.
Keyswords: Employee Performance, Islamic Work Ethics, Job Satisfaction, Person-Environment Fit Theory
Pages: 808-821
Article: 64 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)64
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Semantics of Qawwali: Poetry, Perception, and Cultural Consumption

  1. Rao Nadeem Alam
  2. Tayyaba Khalid
Abstract: Semantics is about meanings and meanings are arbitrary and shared. Understanding qawwali context requires comprehension of semantics or process of meaning creation and meaning sharing among the qawwal party and the audience. This interactive activity might frequently be hindered when interrupted by subjective meanings creation during cultural consumption. Qawwali is a cultural tradition, its semantics are conditioned by axiological premises of poetry and perceptions which are transforming. The previous researches revealed that qawwali is associated with religion which provides the religious message by singing hamd and naat. It was a means to experience Divine; therefore, semantics are multi-layered and often crossroad with values and subjective experiences. It is novel due to its ritual of Sama. It has the therapeutic power that helps mentally disturbed people and they find refuge. This study is exploratory having a small sample size of twenty purposively selected audiences. This phenomenological inquiry used ethnographic method of conversational interviews at selected shrines and cultural spaces in Islamabad. The results indicate that qawwali is a strong refuge for people facing miseries of life and they attend Sama with a belief that attending and listening will consequently resolve their issues, either psychological or physiological. They participate in Sama which teaches them how to be optimistic in a negative situation; this paper brings forth this nodal phenomenon using the verbatim explanations by the interlocutors. Semantics of Qawwali are conditioned and some of these elements are highlighted including poetry and axiology based perceptions and cultural consumption of a cultural realm.
Keyswords: Cognition, Culture, Poetry, Qawwal, Qawwali, Semantics
Pages: 822-834
Article: 65 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)65
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Political Economy of Smuggling: The Living Source for the Natives (A Case Study of Jiwani-Iran Border, Baluchistan)

  1. Abdul Raheem
  2. Dr. Ikram Badshah
  3. Wasia Arshed
Abstract: This study explores the political economy of smuggling on Jiwani-Iran border. The natives are majorly involved in illegal transportation of goods and objects, therefore; the study sets to explain how significant smuggling for the local people is. It describes the kinship role in reciprocity of their trade and transportation. The qualitative methods such as purposive sampling and interview guide were employed for data collection. The research findings revealed that local people were satisfied with their illegal trading which is depended largely on their expertise and know-how of smuggling at borders. They disclosed that their total economy was predominantly based on smuggling of stuff like drugs, diesel, oil, gas, petrol, ration food from Iran, and human trafficking. They also enjoyed the privilege of possessing Sajjil (Iranian identity card), thus; the dual nationality helped them in their daily business and rahdari (border crossing agreement), enabling them to travel to Iran for multiple purposes.
Keyswords: Drugs, Human, Navigation, Political Economy, Reciprocity, Smuggling, Trafficking
Pages: 835-848
Article: 66 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)66
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The Vicious Circles of System: A Kafkaesque Study of Kobo Abe’s The Woman in the Dunes

  1. Imran Aslam
  2. Kainat Azhar
Abstract: This paper analyses the Kafkaesque/Kafkan features of Kobo Abe’s novel The Woman in the as formulated by Kundera in “Kafka’s World.” For Kundera, in a Kafkaesque work human existence is bleakly represented through intermingling of tragedy and comedy in an indifferent world dominated by hegemonic systems. The Kafkaesque is characterised by the following: World is a huge forking labyrinthine institution where the man has been thrown to suffer its complexities, confrontation with the labyrinth makes his existence meaningless because freedom is a taboo in no man’s land, he is punished for an unknown sin for which he seeks justification from the superior authorities, but his efforts are viewed as ludicrous or comic despite the underlying sense of tragedy. (5) The Kafkaesque tendency to present tragic situation comically is also explored in Abe’s novel. The paper studies the effect of higher authorities exercising their power over man and the inscrutability of cosmic structures continuously undermining human freedom in nightmarish conditions. The paper establishes Kobo Abe in the literary world as a writer who portrays the hollowness and futility of human lives with a Kafkaesque touch.
Keyswords: Authority, Institutions, Kafka, Kafkaesque, Kafkan, Kobo Abe, Kundera, The Trial, The Woman in the Dune
Pages: 849-861
Article: 67 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)67
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Subjectivity and Ideological Interpellation: An Investigation of Omar Shahid Hamid’s The Spinner’s Tale

  1. Hina Iqbal
  2. Dr. Muhammad Asif
  3. Asia Saeed
Abstract: Louis Althusser’s concept of interpellation is a process in which individuals internalize cultural values and ideology and becomes subject. Althusser believes that ideology is a belief system of a society in which ideological agencies establish hierarchies in society through reinforcement and discrimination for cultural conditioning. These agencies function through ideological state apparatuses. These ideological agencies help to construct individual identity in society. The undesirable ideologies promote repressive political agendas. The non-repressive ideologies are inhaled by the individuals as a natural way of looking at the culture and society. This research seeks to investigate Omar Shahid Hamid’s novel The Spinners Tales through the lens of Althusser’s ideology and interpellation. This study examines how the characters of Shahid’s novel inhaled ideology and became its subjects. This research also depicts the alarming effects of cultural hegemony that creates cultural infidelity and hierarchies between the bourgeoisie and proletariat classes.
Keyswords: Cultural Hegemony, Ideological State Apparatus, Ideology, Interpellation, Repressive Factors
Pages: 862-872
Article: 68 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)68
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Blessing in Disguise: Recommendations of Indian Education Commission (1882) and Christian Missionaries’ Educational Policy in the Colonial Punjab

  1. Mohammad Dilshad Mohabbat
  2. Muhammad Hassan
  3. Muhammad Ayaz Rafi
Abstract: Woods Education Despatch is considered to be the Magna Carta of Indian Education. It controlled the Indian education field till the establishment of Indian Education Commission, 1882. The Despatch provided space to Christian missionaries by promising government’s gradual withdrawal from the education in favour of missionaries. It also facilitated the missionaries by offering system of ‘grants on aid’ to the private bodies. Consequently, the missionaries fancied to replace the government institutions in the Punjab and initiated their efforts to increase the number of their educational institutions. They tried to occupy the educational field by establishing more and more educational institutions. But after the Recommendations of the Indian Education Commission 1882, a change in their policy of numeric increase of educational institutions is quite visible. With the turn of the century, they are found to be eager to establish a few institutions with good quality of education. This paper intends to analyse different factors behind the change of their policy of quantitative dominance to qualitative improvement. It also attempts to evaluate how their change of policy worked and what steps were taken to improve the quality of their educational institutions. Following the historical method qualitative data comprising educational reports, missionaries’ autobiographies, Reports of missionaries’ conferences, and the other relevant primary and secondary sources has been collected from different repositories. The analysis of the data suggests that the attitude of the administration of the education department and the recommendations of Indian Education Commission were the major driving forces behind the change of missionaries’ educational policy in the 20th century. The missionaries, after adopting the new policy, worked on the quality of education in their institutions and became successful.
Keyswords: Christian Missionaries, Indian Education Commission, Missionary Schools, Numeric Increase, Quality of Education. The Punjab, Woods Education Despatch
Pages: 873-887
Article: 69 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)69
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Basic Life Values of Prospective Special Education Teachers

  1. Dr. Maria Sohaib Qureshi
  2. Dr. Syeda Samina Tahira
  3. Dr. Muhammad Irfan Arif
Abstract: Future teachers' preconceived values about how to live their lives and how that affects the lives of their students were the focus of this study. Descriptive research was used by the researchers. The study was carried out by using Morris's Ways to Live Scale. Researchers used this scale to study prospective special education teachers' gender, social status, personal relationships, aesthetics and mental approach using purposive sampling method. Descriptive and inferential stats were used to analyse the data collected from those who participated in the study on basic life values of prospective teachers. Results indicated that being social and sympathetic are the most important values among prospective special education teachers. It was also found that male and female prospective special education teachers living in urban and rural areas had no significant differences in their basic life values.
Keyswords: Special Education, Teacher, Values
Pages: 888-896
Article: 70 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)70
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Perception of Dowry: Effects on Women Rights in Punjab

  1. Dr. Bushra Yasmeen
  2. Dr. Muhammad Ramzan
  3. Dr. Asma Seemi Malik
Abstract: Dowry is a common tradition in south Asian countries, especially in Pakistan and India. Daughters became curses and liability for parents causing serious consequences. For control, there are legal ban/restrictions (Dowry and Wedding Gifts (Restriction) Act, 1976; Amendment in Act, 1993) on its practice in Pakistan. Despite the legal cover, the custom has been extended. Dowry amount seems to be increasing due to changing lifestyle and trends of society. To understand males’ and females’ perceptions about dowry; impacts of dowry; why dowry is essential; and how it is affecting women’s rights and eventually affecting women’s autonomy. A qualitative study was conducted. Data was collected by using unstructured interviews from males and females including social activists, economists, and married couples about wedding expenses, demands, society pressure, men’s support, and perception against dowry especially with regards to women’s rights and autonomy. The study concluded heavy dowry especially in terms of furniture, electronics, kitchenware, car, furnished houses, and cash highly associated with women’s development and their rights. General people’s perception showed that dowry is no longer remained a custom or tradition in Asian countries. It is just a trend and people follow it as a symbol of respect for parents and women as well.
Keyswords: Dowry, Effects, Impacts Of Dowry, Perceptions, Women Autonomy, Women Rights
Pages: 897-909
Article: 71 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)71
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NCOC-An Emblem of Effective Governance: An analysis of Pakistan’s Counter Strategy for Covid-19 as a Non-Traditional Security Challenge

  1. Dr. Iram Khalid
Abstract: COVID -19 affected the world unprecedentedly. Lack of capacity and poor standards of governance caused nontraditional security challenges to Pakistan too. The NCOC is the central nerve center to guide the national response to COVID-19 by Pakistan and can be best analyzed in the light of the decision-making theory of Naturalist Decision Making (NDM). The study points out the effective role performed by NCOC at policy formation through a more prosaic combination of science, data, decision making and execution of decisions at the level of federalism. The study highlights the changing patterns of government’s approach during the pandemic at various levels. Pakistan faced economic, political and social crisis during this phase. This study uses a survey and key informant interviews as the source of analysis for qualitative data collection. By applying the decision- making theory, the paper extends that there is a need to use a model to balance the existing gap within the system, to meet challenges. The study suggests a coordinating approach among various units and center; that might raise the level of performance to meet the nontraditional security challenges with innovation, creativity and boldness.
Keyswords: COVID-19, Decision Making Theory, Governance, Nontraditional Threats, Strategy
Pages: 910-930
Article: 72 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)72
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Comparative Implications of Wednesbury Principle in England and Pakistan

  1. Safarat Ahmad Ali Shah
  2. Dr. Sara Qayum
  3. Arzoo Farhad
Abstract: Wednesbury principle is one of the most important and useful grounds of the Judicial Review. Judicial review is a remedy provided by the public law and is exercised by the superior and higher courts to supervise administrative authorities' powers and functions. The main objective of the judicial review is to ensure the fair and transparent treatment of individuals by public authorities. The ground of the judicial review, i.e., Unreasonableness or irrationality or popularly known as Wednesbury Unreasonableness was introduced by lord Greene in the Wednesbury Corporation case in 1948. Initially, the scope of this ground of judicial review was very narrow and was allowed only in rare cases. However, with the development of administrative law and Human rights, it also developed. Its development resulted in different controversies and issues about the application of this ground. The main issue is about its encroachment in the jurisdiction of other branches of the government i.e., the parliament and executive. The free and loose application of this principle results in confusion and conflict between different organs of the government. The present paper is based on the implications of the limitations on the ground of Wednesbury Unreasonableness both on the judicial and administrative bodies in Pakistan to avoid the chaos and confusion that results in the criticisms on this ground of judicial review.
Keyswords: Administrative Authorities, Critical Analysis, Illegality, Judicial Review, Pakistan, Wednesbury Unreasonableness
Pages: 931-946
Article: 73 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)73
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Water Sharing Issues in Pakistan: Impacts on Inter-Provincial Relations

  1. Khadeeja Imran
Abstract: The burgeoning conflict over the water sharing is now a global phenomenon. Many international treaties, laws and water management models are available to settle down the water sharing issues among the states like Absolute Territorial Sovereignty and the Upper Riparian, Absolute Territorial Integrity and the Lower Riparian and Mediated Strategy of Restricted Integrity. Inter-provincial water sharing issue in Pakistan is a classic example of upstream–downstream rivalry which has been traced back from the pre-partition history of Pakistan. Lower riparian province Sindh has a historical conflict with upper riparian province Punjab, Balochistan being lower riparian has water conflicts with Sindh, and KPK has water sharing issue with Punjab. The constitution has also empowered the existing institutions like CCI and IRSA and established several new rules for the water management among provinces. Currently, it has become the issue of federation and has disturbed the provincial harmony and national integration.
Keyswords: CCI, IRSA, National Integration, Provincial Harmony, Water Sharing
Pages: 947-959
Article: 74 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)74
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Political Parties as Core Entity for Political Development: A Comparative Theoretical Analysis

  1. Muhammad Naveed Sial
  2. Dr. Gulshan Majeed
Abstract: The paper analyzes the concept of political development comprehensively with special reference to the role of political parties in the development of the idea. Prima Facie, the concept has a prime importance in Comparative politics as its major focus is on the application of the political development in post-colonial states such as Pakistan. Most of the elements of the political development are common among the developing nations which align cases for comparative study. Hegelian dialect effects the formation of political parties, ideological narratives and reverse engineering in re-political development when and where needed. Utilization of useful index of institutionalization and impact of modernization theory on the political development in national politics is edge of the research. The paper critically discusses crises and challenges to the political development and comparative analysis has been employed to evaluate the subject of political development involving political parties. This is theoretical descriptive research identifying various pre-requisites of political development by protecting political systems from possible political decay. Strengthened political parties develop in sound politico-economic conditions to develop a vibrant democratic system turning into phrasal political development
Keyswords: Modernization Theory, National Integration, Political Development, Political Parties, Public Diplomacy
Pages: 960-971
Article: 75 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)75
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Effect of Online-Live-Teaching on Students Achievement in Mathematics: An Experiment Study in Balochistan, Pakistan

  1. Nadia Ali
  2. Dr. Intzar Hussain Butt
Abstract: For the study a true experimental design, pre-test/post-test control group approach was used. The purpose was to find out the effect of online-live-teaching on 7th graders achievement in mathematics. A government high school was selected in a rural setting having 104 students in 7th grade. Three groups were formed and the participants were assigned to each group through simple random sampling using SPSS. The groups A & B were the experimental groups while group C was the control group. The teacher used the prescribed 7th grade Balochistan Textbook Board mathematics book. The 7th graders of group A, B and C were pretested. The duration of experiment was 4 months. One-way ANOVA and ANCOVA were applied to find the difference in three study groups on mathematics pre-test mean scores and mathematics post-test mean scores. The study concluded that the online-live-teaching is as effective as the traditional face-to-face teaching is.
Keyswords: Achievement, Live Teaching, Math, Online
Pages: 972-982
Article: 76 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)76
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Exploring Women Representation in Meme Discourse: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of Selected Memes from Pakistani Facebook Pages

  1. Amna Shahid
  2. Dr. Humaira Irfan
  3. Qaisar Abbas
Abstract: Today, creating, viewing, and sharing memes has become a daily activity for many users on the social media, especially Facebook. This study analyzes women representation in meme discourse. The study aims to investigate how women are represented in the memes of Pakistani Facebook pages. It has particularly focused how women are linguistically and visually portrayed in the memes. Also, the study has identified stereotyping about women in Pakistani context. For investigating women representation in memes, 6 popular internet memes had been selected from three Pakistani Facebook Pages, Lateefon Ki Dunay, Mangobaz and Sarcamistan. To explore women representation in the memes, Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis was applied as a theoretical framework. The findings of the study revealed that women are represented in negative manners in Pakistani Facebook pages. Moreover, the memes maintains the stereotypical representation of women. The study concluded that such stereotypes and negativity about women should be eliminated by educating people, especially men.
Keyswords: Facebook Memes, Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis, Negativ, Projections of Pakistani Women, Visual and Linguistic Analysis
Pages: 983-994
Article: 77 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)77
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Effect of Climate Change on Food Productivity and Food Security of Pakistan

  1. Sumera Tul Hasan
  2. Miss Rizwana
Abstract: This study was conducted to review the impact of climate change on the food production and food security of Pakistan. It further explored the climate risks for vulnerable populations and suggested interventions for adaptation and mitigation of climate-related risks. The study finds that climate change is a global problem which poses serious threat to the security and prosperity of the world. Despite being a global problem, its impacts will be felt unequally across various regions of the world. These impacts are likely to be felt more severely in developing countries like Pakistan. Climate change has become one of the biggest problems for Pakistan by threatening our water resources. The findings indicate that we need strong adaptation and mitigation efforts to prevent the worst impacts of climate change on our food production and food security system. The study also suggests that raising awareness among farming communities, the agencies and stake holders involved in agricultural supply chains is critical to implement adaptation policies and impact mitigation strategies.
Keyswords: Facebook Memes, Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis, Negative, Projections of Pakistani Women, Visual and Linguistic Analysis
Pages: 995-1004
Article: 78 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)78
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A Historical and Political Analysis of Kashmir Conflict: From Past to Present

  1. Izzat Raazia
  2. Saqib Ur Rehman
  3. Rabia Aslam
Abstract: The partitioning of Sub-continent India in 1947 brought to the fore the Kashmir conflict between Pakistan and India when the Maharaja of Kashmir signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of India. Pakistan and India, from then onwards, remained toe to toe, fought four overt wars and confronted several near-daily clashes. This antagonistic atmosphere between them not only plagued the mutual ties for more than seven decades but prompted them towards nuclearization. Due to their conflictual relationship and political stalemate, the Kashmiri youth has initiated strong resistance, paving way for excessive militarization in Indian held Kashmir leading towards gross human rights violations. Previously, several UN resolutions voted in favour of fair and impartial plebiscite in Kashmir but without any implementation mechanism. Moreover, on 5th August 2019, India unconstitutionally repealed the ‘Special Status’ and scrapped the rights of Kashmiris to frame its laws granted under article 370 of Indian Constitution unilaterally without the consent of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The stripping of the Article 35A permitted the non-residents to buy property that would change the demographics of Kashmir Valley. The objective of this paper is to present a detailed historical and political overview of the Kashmir conflict.
Keyswords: Article 370, Human Rights Abuse, India, Intifada, Kashmir, Militarization, Pakistan, UN Security Council
Pages: 1005-1016
Article: 79 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)79
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US Grand Strategy Failure towards Afghanistan in Post 9/11 Era

  1. Faima Munawar Cheema
  2. Dr. Noor Fatima
Abstract: This study aims to explore why the US' post-Cold War global policy has largely been unsuccessful to fulfil American goals when it comes to regional extremist fights. Using Afghanistan as a case study, this study evaluates the various US government and administration's contradictions, inconsistencies, loop holes, and grand strategy frameworks that have trapped the nation in lengthy counter-terrorism battles and hampered the nation's prospects of finishing the hostilities effectively in the previous two decades. Soon after the terrorist attacks of 9/11 the US' Grand strategy emphasis shifted to combatting as well as eradicating terrorism, particularly in the Middle East and the African continent. The US/Afghan war is a governmental issue of exceptional power, in which the Afghan rebel structure influences the conflictual behavior, and the US as a tremendous power exploits September 11. Finally, this study will propose policy propositions to help the US make effective policies regarding where and with what rationale to spend tax money, risking the lives of Americans, and improve the country's strategic competency regarding future dynamic confrontations particularly against autocratic regimes and transnational jihadist activities.
Keyswords: Afghanistan, Al-Qaeda, Grand Strategy, United States
Pages: 1017-1026
Article: 80 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)80
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Social Validity: A Note on Triad Perceptions with Triad Methodical Levels of the Behavioral Intervention Program

  1. Hina Hadayat Ali
  2. Dr. Hina Fazil
Abstract: The purpose of the researchers was to examine the social validity of discrete trial training (DTT) program in this behavioral intervention study. The value of social validity needed to be noted at three levels: 1) relevance and importance of the formulated goals of this behavioral intervention study to the persons involved; 2) executed procedures are acceptable and are more likely to be applicable to the participants; and 3) perceived outcomes of this behavioral intervention study is satisfactory. The researchers outlined specific ways to examine the importance of social validity at all three levels. The researchers developed a Hina-Hina Social Validity Questionnaires of DTT Program for the Participants, Parents and Teachers of the Study based on the conceptual work of Wolf in 1970 to obtain data and hence statistically analyzed. The closure of findings finally led the researchers to conclude that the social importance and the acceptability of the formulated goals, executed procedures and perceived outcomes of the DTT program obtained 100% consensus across all the items except 5 items by the perception of the participants, parents and teachers.
Keyswords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Behavioral Intervention, Discrete Trial Training Program, Formulated Goals, Perceived Outcomes, Social Validity
Pages: 1027-1042
Article: 81 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)81
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Afghanistan after U.S withdrawal and Role of Pakistan: An Analysis

  1. Dr. Uzma Naz
  2. Dr. Sajid Mehmood Shahzad
Abstract: The military annihilation of the Taliban on account of the US-drove alliance in the consequence of the 11 September assaults adjusted the political conditions in Afghanistan. This study has been planned to overcome the research gap about the situation created after withdrawal of USA from Afghanistan. Aside from the chronicled question concerning the division of fringes, new issues have developed after the US military activities in Afghanistan. Afghanistan historically remained crucial, particularly in Asia with its ever-evolving nature of foreign relations. Relations with Pakistan, the Afghan government always had bitter realities but the population of the country had strong sentiments and bonds with Pakistan, particularly after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Pakistan supported unconditionally Even after the Soviet defeat, Pakistan supported Afghanistan in multiple ways but after 9/11 with the change of world order. This study is qualitative in nature and historical descriptive approach have been adopted to meet the objectives Pakistan's position became controversial in the eyes of Afghanistan and USA as well.
Keyswords: Afghanistan, Bilateral Relations, Military Alliance
Pages: 1043-1051
Article: 82 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)82
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Aurat March and Women Empowerment: Perceptions and Perspectives of Women in Pakistan

  1. Ghulam Sarwar
  2. Dr. Zille Huma
Abstract: Aurat March initiated a diverse form of activism in Pakistan that started a conflictive debate within the country between those with different ideologies. This paper seeks to analyze the different perceptions and perspectives of women and answer the questions that why Aurat March has become contentious and controversial, and attempt to understand women’s empowerment, what it was initiated for, and its accomplishment. Therefore, this is a qualitative theoretical study that uses the methodology of discourse analysis and implies a theoretical framework of feminism theories which argues that Aurat March is a visible display of women empowerment in Pakistan but the narratives and notions are radically paradoxical in nature, impacted negatively on women’s lives, and put the feminist movements into controversial rhetoric with no positive results. This study finds the need to raise a constructive and effective model of feminism that supports Pakistani women, a model that is indigenous in nature, comprises diverse voices and also includes lived experiences and religious values.
Keyswords: Aurat March, Feminism, Pakistan, Women Empowerment
Pages: 1052-1062
Article: 83 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)83
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Identity and Victimization of the Muslims in America: A Literary Study

  1. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan
Abstract: Created differently, human beings identify themselves with what they have and what they aspire to have. But at times, though not very often, some incidents and circumstances bring people to such a crucial point in their lives that they have to prove or disapprove, show or conceal their identities to ward off existential crises. 9/11 was one such incident that divided the global world into two halves, Muslim, and non-Muslim. Muslims, wherever they were in European countries, especially in America – the center of the so-called civilized world, were seen as enemies and uncivilized. Such debates were raised worldwide in different fields of inquiry including literature. This research tries to explore the identity crises of immigrant Muslims in The Reluctant Fundamentalist by Mohsin Hamid and Home Boy by Mohsin Naqvi. The study shows that protagonists of both these novels were considered progressive and civilized before the fall of the twin towers but immediately after that they were labelled negatively even though they were not directly or indirectly involved in acts of terrorism on American or any other soil. The sudden and undeserved typecasting, otherization and marginalization of Muslim lovers of America made them rethink, redefine, and restructure their identities
Keyswords: 9/11, Home Boy Identity, Immigrant, Other, Self, The Reluctant Fundamentalist
Pages: 1063-1070
Article: 84 , Volume 2 , Issue 4
DOI Number: 10.47205/jdss.2021(2-IV)84
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